Found 13 article(s) for author 'Urban Development'

Cities and Big Data

Cities and Big Data. Edward Glaeser, September 2019, Paper, “Historically, there has been a divide between urban economics and the physical aspects of the city itself. Social scientific research has been detached from subjects such as architecture and streetscapes. This lack of connection has been driven in part by a lack of data on the physical attributes of urban spaces. The “big data” revolution will change this. Big data turns a cross section of space into living data, offering a broader and finer picture of urban life than has ever been available before. Moreover, in combination with predictive algorithms, big data may allow us to extrapolate outcome variables such as house prices or income to previously unmeasured parts of a population. This policy brief showcases some examples of how big data can be used to develop cities.Link

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Recent Employment Growth in Cities, Suburbs, and Rural Communities

Recent Employment Growth in Cities, Suburbs, and Rural Communities. Christopher Foote, September 18, 2019, Paper, “This paper uses a comprehensive source of yearly data to study private-sector labor demand across US counties during the past five decades. Our focus is on how employment levels and earnings relate to population density—that is, how labor markets in rural areas, suburbs, and urban areas have fared relative to one another. Three broad lessons emerge. First, the longstanding suburbanization of employment and population in cities with very dense urban cores essentially stopped in the first decade of the 21st century. For cities with less dense cores, however, the decentralization of employment continues, even as population patterns mimic those of denser areas. Second, a dataset that begins in 1964 shows clearly the decentralization of manufacturing employment away from inner cities that has long been a focus of the urban sociological literature. Starting in the 1990s, however, manufacturing employment fell sharply not just in cities but also in rural areas, which had experienced less-intense deindustrialization before then.Link

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Redefining Engagement with Socio-spatially Marginalised Populations: Learning from Ghana’s Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development

Redefining Engagement with Socio-spatially Marginalised Populations: Learning from Ghana’s Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development. Michael Hooper, 2019, Paper, “Global interest in enhancing accountability and community participation has led many governments to engage socio-spatially marginalised populations left behind by urban development. This article examines an emergent example of these efforts: Ghana’s Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development (MICZD). The MICZD’s objective is to improve the social and infrastructural development of zongos, or ‘stranger’s quarters’, which have historically housed Hausa migrants and are associated with slum-like conditions. The study draws on 38 interviews with government stakeholders, community organisations and local leaders as well as on four focus groups with zongo residents. The results reveal four key findings. First, the MICZD’s engagement with zongos is perceived as politically motivated, with this viewed negatively by some and positively by others. Second, the MICZD’s timeline is perceived differently depending on who is being asked. Third, respondents differ in their prioritisation of physical versus social improvements, with the MICZD focussing on physical interventions and zongo residents focussing on social and economic development. Finally, different groups have varied visions of success for the MICZD. The article concludes by identifying two paths towards more empowering state– society engagement—more continuous engagement and counterbalancing powers—and proposes how lessons from the MICZD can inform engagement with marginalised populations more broadly.Link

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Measuring Gentrification: Using Yelp Data to Quantify Neighborhood Change

Measuring Gentrification: Using Yelp Data to Quantify Neighborhood Change. Edward Glaeser, August 2018, Paper, “We demonstrate that data from digital platforms such as Yelp have the potential to improve our understanding of gentrification, both by providing data in close to real time (i.e. nowcasting and forecasting) and by providing additional context about how the local economy is changing. Combining Yelp and Census data, we find that gentrification, as measured by changes in the educational, age, and racial composition within a ZIP code, is strongly associated with increases in the numbers of grocery stores, cafes, restaurants, and bars, with little evidence of crowd-out of other categories of businesses. We also find that changes in the local business landscape is a leading indicator of housing price changes, and that the entry of Starbucks (and coffee shops more generally) into a neighborhood predicts gentrification. Each additional Starbucks that enters a zip code is associated with a 0.5% increase in housing prices.Link

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Yet another tale of two cities: Buenos Aires and Chicago

Yet another tale of two cities: Buenos Aires and Chicago. Filipe Campante, Edward Glaeser, February 3, 2018, Paper, “Buenos Aires and Chicago grew during the nineteenth century for remarkably similar reasons. Both cities were conduits for moving meat and grain from fertile hinterlands to eastern markets. However, despite their initial similarities, Chicago was vastly more prosperous for most of the twentieth century. Can the differences between the cities after 1930 be explained by differences in the cities before that date? We highlight four major differences between Buenos Aires and Chicago in 1914. Chicago was slightly richer, and significantly better educated.Link

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Urban transformations and the future of cities

Urban transformations and the future of cities. Edward Glaeser, 2017, Book Chapter, “In the last few decades, many global cities and towns have experienced unprecedented economic, social, and spatial structural change. Today, we find ourselves at the juncture between entering a post-urban and a post-political world, both presenting new challenges to our metropolitan regions, municipalities, and cities. Many megacities, declining regions and towns are experiencing an increase in the number of complex problems regarding internal relationships, governance, and external connections. In particular, a growing disparity exists between citizens that are socially excluded within declining physical and economic realms and those situated in thriving geographic areas. This book conveys how forces of structural change shape the urban landscape.Link

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Urban Productivity in the Developing World

Urban Productivity in the Developing World. Edward Glaeser, March 2017, Paper, “Africa is urbanizing rapidly, and this creates both opportunities and challenges. Labor productivity appears to be much higher in developing-world cities than in rural areas, and historically urbanization is strongly correlated with economic growth. Education seems to be a strong complement to urbanization, and entrepreneurial human capital correlates strongly with urban success. Immigrants provide a natural source of entrepreneurship, both in the U.S. and in Africa, which suggests that making African cities more livable can generate economic benefits by attracting talent. Reducing the negative externalities of urban life requires a combination of infrastructure, incentives, and institutions. Appropriate institutions can mean independent public authorities, public-private partnerships, and non-profit entities depending on the setting.Link

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Urban Economics for the Developing World: An Introduction

Urban Economics for the Developing World: An Introduction. Edward Glaeser, 2017, Paper, “This is an introduction to the special issue of the Journal of Urban Economics on “Urbanization in Developing Countries: Past and Present”. We argue that the rapid urbanization and the rise of cities in the developing world demand new avenues of research and much more research to deal with the urban issues facing billions of people across the world that current work barely covers. This issue contains papers which move in that direction and signals a commitment by the journal to pursue this agenda.LInk

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Long-Range Growth: Economic Development in the Global Network of Air Links

Long-Range Growth: Economic Development in the Global Network of Air Links. Filipe Campante, David Yanagizawa-Drott, September 2016, Paper, “We study the impact of international long-distance flights on the global spatial allocation of economic activity. To identify causal effects, we exploit variation due to regulatory and technological constraints which give rise to a discontinuity in connectedness between cities at a distance of 6000 miles. We show that these air links have a positive effect on local economic activity, as captured by satellite-measured night lights. To shed light on how air links shape economic outcomes, we first present evidence of positive externalities in the global network of air links: connections induce further connections. We then find that air links increase business links, showing that the movement of people fosters the movement of capital. In particular, this is driven mostly by capital flowing from high-income to middle-income (but not low-income) countries.Link

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Preserving history or restricting development? The heterogeneous effects of historic districts on local housing markets in New York City

Preserving history or restricting development? The heterogeneous effects of historic districts on local housing markets in New York City. Edward Glaeser, March 2016, Paper, “Since Brooklyn Heights was designated as New York City’s first landmarked neighborhood in 1965, the Landmarks Preservation Commission has designated 120 historic neighborhoods in the city. This paper develops a theory in which landmarking has heterogeneous impacts across neighborhoods and exploits variation in the timing of historic district designations in New York City to identify the effects of preservation policies on residential property markets.Link

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