Found 10 article(s) for author 'Tom Nicholas'

VC: An American History

VC: An American History. Tom Nicholas, 2019, Book, “A major exploration of venture financing, from its origins in the whaling industry to Silicon Valley, that shows how venture capital created an epicenter for the development of high-tech innovation. VC tells the riveting story of how the industry arose from the United States’ long-running orientation toward entrepreneurship. Venture capital has been driven from the start by the pull of outsized returns through a skewed distribution of payoffs―a faith in low-probability but substantial financial rewards that rarely materialize. Whether the gamble is a whaling voyage setting sail from New Bedford or the newest startup in Silicon Valley, VC is not just a model of finance that has proven difficult to replicate in other countries. It is a state of mind exemplified by an appetite for risk-taking, a bold spirit of adventure, and an unbridled quest for improbable wealth through investment in innovation.Link

Tags: , , , , ,

Taxation and Innovation in the 20th Century

Taxation and Innovation in the 20th Century. Tom Nicholas, Stefanie Stantcheva, September 2018, Paper, “This paper studies the effect of corporate and personal taxes on innovation in the United States over the twentieth century. We use three new datasets: a panel of the universe of inventors who patent since 1920; a dataset of the employment, location and patents of firms active in R&D since 1921; and a historical state-level corporate tax database since 1900, which we link to an existing database on state-level personal income taxes. Our analysis focuses on the impact of taxes on individual inventors and firms (the micro level) and on states over time (the macro level).Link

Tags: , , , , ,

History, Micro Data, and Endogenous Growth

History, Micro Data, and Endogenous Growth. Tom Nicholas, September 8, 2018, Paper, “Economic growth is concerned with long-run changes, and therefore historical data should be especially influential in informing the development of new theories. In this paper we draw on the recent literature to highlight areas in which history has played a particularly prominent role in improving our understanding of growth dynamics. Research at the intersection of historical data, theory and empirics has the potential to re-frame how we think about economic growth in much the same way that historical perspectives helped to shape the first generation of endogenous growth theories.Link

Tags: , , , , ,

Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity

Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity. Tom Nicholas, February 2017, Paper, “This paper builds on the analysis in Akcigit, Grigsby, and Nicholas (2017) by using US patent and Census data to examine macro and micro-level aspects of the relationship between immigration and innovation. We construct a measure of “foreign born expertise” and show that technology areas where immigrant inventors were prevalent between 1880 and 1940 experienced more patenting and citations between 1940 and 2000. We also show that immigrant inventors were more productive during their life cycle than native born inventors, although they received significantly lower levels of labor income than their native born counterparts. Overall, the contribution of foreign born inventors to US innovation was substantial, but we also find evidence of an immigrant inventor wage-gap that cannot be explained by differentials in productivity.Link

Tags: , , , ,

Linking the Growth of Globalisation with the Evolution of Transport Technology

Linking the Growth of Globalisation with the Evolution of Transport Technology. Tom Nicholas, January 29, 2017, Paper, “We examine the golden age of U.S. innovation by undertaking a major data collection exercise linking historical U.S. patents to state and county-level aggregates and matching inventors to Federal Censuses between 1880 and 1940. We identify a causal relationship between patented inventions and long-run economic growth and outline a basic framework for analyzing key macro and micro-level determinants. We find a positive relationship between innovation and drivers of regional performance including population density, financial development and geographic connectedness. We also explore the impact of social structure measured by slavery and religion.Link

Tags: , , , ,

The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age

The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age. Tom Nicholas, January 2017, Paper, “We examine the golden age of US innovation by undertaking a major data collection exercise linking US patents to state and county-level aggregates and matching inventors to Federal Censuses between 1880 and 1940. We identify a causal relationship between patented inventions and long run economic growth and outline a basic framework for analyzing key macro and micro-level determinants. We explore drivers of regional performance including population density, financial development, geographic connectedness and social structure. We then profile the characteristics of inventors and their life cycle, measure the returns to technological development, and document the relationship between innovation, inequality and social mobility. Our new data help to address important questions related to innovation and long-run growth dynamics.Link

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

The Origins of High-Tech Venture Investing in America

The Origins of High-Tech Venture Investing in America. Tom Nicholas, October 2015, Book Chapter. “The United States has developed an unparalleled environment for the provision of high-tech investment finance. Today it is reflected in the strength of agglomeration economies in Silicon Valley, but historically its origins lay in the East Coast. Notably, the New England Council’s immediate post-WWII efforts to create the American Research and Development Corporation created a precedent for “long-tail” high-tech investing. This approach became institutionalized in America over subsequent decades in a way that has been difficult to replicate in other countries. The role of history helps to explain why.Link

Tags: , , ,

Prizes, Patents and the Search for Longitude

Prizes, Patents and the Search for Longitude. Tom Nicholas, July 2015, Paper, “The 1714 Longitude Act created the Board of Longitude to administer a large monetary prize and progress payments for the precise determination of a ship’s longitude. It is frequently cited to justify the use of prize-based incentives over patents. Using new data on marine chronometer inventors we show that while the timing of the Board’s progress payments did not systematically influence entry or patents, the propensity to patent was high. Furthermore, the level of patents increased during the post-Board era as chronometers were cumulatively refined. The search for longitude relied on a complementarity between prizes and patents to produce a socially valuable innovation when private investment was low.Link

Tags: , , ,

The Organization of Enterprise in Japan

The Organization of Enterprise in Japan. Tom Nicholas, August 2014, Paper, “Recent research reveals that the joint stock corporation was not a superior form of business organization in many countries historically. In Japan, however, it played a more fundamental role. Between 1896 and 1939 joint stock enterprises accounted for 44 percent of registered businesses, and 80 percent of total capital. From 1922 to 1939 joint stock enterprises outperformed limited and unlimited partnerships by ROE, and generated 94 percent of aggregate profits. External finance factors, Japan’s development phase, industrial structure, public policy and culture determined high joint stock usage. When the private limited liability company was introduced in 1938, it did not displace the joint stock form.Link

Tags: , , , , , ,

Did Bank Distress Stifle Innovation During the Great Depression?

Did Bank Distress Stifle Innovation During the Great Depression? Ramana Nanda, Tom Nicholas, October 2013, Paper. “We find a negative relationship between bank distress and the level, quality, and trajectory of firm-level innovation during the Great Depression, particularly for R&D firms operating in capital intensive industries. However, we also show that because a sufficient number of R&D intensive firms were located in counties with lower levels of bank distress, or were operating in less capital intensive industries, the negative effects were mitigated in aggregate…” Link

Tags: , , , , , , , ,