Found 30 article(s) for author 'Social Mobility'

Creating Moves to Opportunity: Experimental Evidence on Barriers to Neighborhood Choice

Creating Moves to Opportunity: Experimental Evidence on Barriers to Neighborhood Choice. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, Lawrence Katz, August 2019, Paper, “Low-income families in the United States tend to live in neighborhoods that offer limited opportunities for upward income mobility. One potential explanation for this pattern is that families prefer such neighborhoods for other reasons, such as affordability or proximity to family and jobs. An alternative explanation is that they do not move to high-opportunity areas because of barriers that prevent them from making such moves. We test between these two explanations using a randomized controlled trial with housing voucher recipients in Seattle and King County. We provided services to reduce barriers to moving to high-upward-mobility neighborhoods: customized search assistance, landlord engagement, and short-term financial assistance. The intervention increased the fraction of families who moved to high-upward-mobility areas from 14% in the control group to 54% in the treatment group.Link

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Second Chance: Life without Student Debt

Second Chance: Life without Student Debt. Marco Di Maggio, April 26, 2019, Paper, “Rising student debt is considered one of the creeping threats of our time. This paper examines the effect of student debt relief on individual credit and labor market outcomes. We exploit the plausibly-random debt discharge due to the inability of National Collegiate, the largest owner of private student loan debt, to prove chain of title for thousands of loans across the US. Using hand-collected lawsuits filings matched with individual credit bureau information, we find that borrowers experiencing the debt relief shock reduce their indebtedness by 26%, by both reducing their demand for credit and limiting the use of existing credit accounts, and are 12% less likely to default on other accounts. After the discharge, the borrowers’ geographical mobility increases, as well as, their probability to change jobs and ultimately their income increases by more than $4000 over a three year period, which is equivalent to about two months’ salary. These findings speak to the benefits of intervening in the student loan market to reduce the consequences of debt overhang problems by forgiving student debts.Link

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Intergenerational Wealth Mobility and Racial Inequality

Intergenerational Wealth Mobility and Racial Inequality. Alexandra Killewald, 2019, Paper, “The black-white gap in household wealth is large and well documented. Here, we visualize how this racial wealth gap persists across generations. Animating the flow of individuals between the relative wealth position of parents and their adult children, we show that the disadvantage of black families is a consequence both of wealth inequality in prior generations and race differences in the transmission of wealth positions across generations: Black children both have less wealthy parents on average and are far more likely to be downwardly mobile in household wealth. By displaying intergenerational movements between parental and offspring wealth quintiles, we underline how intergenerational fluctuation coexists with the maintenance of a severely racialized wealth structure.Link

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A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India

A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India. Rohini Pande, October 2018, Paper, “Today in India, 67% percent of men own mobile phones, but only 33% percent of women do. South Asian countries in general are clear outliers among countries of similar levels of development, with India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh exhibiting some of the world’s highest gender gaps in access to technology. While the mobile gender gap matters in its own right, it is particularly problematic because it can exacerbate other important forms of inequality — in earnings, networking opportunities, and access to information.Link

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The American Dream Is Harder To Find In Some Neighborhoods

The American Dream Is Harder To Find In Some Neighborhoods. Raj Chetty, 10/1/18, Audio, “Does the neighborhood you grow up in determine how far you move up the economic ladder? A new online data tool being made public Monday finds a strong correlation between where people are raised and their chances of achieving the American dream.Link

Opportunity Atlas –

https://www.opportunityatlas.org/

 

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Long-Term Impacts of Alternative Approaches to Increase Schooling: Experimental Evidence from a Scholarship Program in Cambodia

Long-Term Impacts of Alternative Approaches to Increase Schooling: Experimental Evidence from a Scholarship Program in Cambodia. Felipe Barrera-Osorio, August 24, 2018, Paper, “This paper reports on a randomized experiment to investigate the longterm effects of a primary school scholarship program in rural Cambodia. In 2008, fourth-grade students in 207 randomly assigned schools (103 treatment, 104 control) received scholarships based on the student’s academic performance in math and language or on their level of poverty. Three years after the program’s inception, an evaluation showed that both types of scholarship recipients had more schooling than non-recipients; however, only merit-based scholarships led to improvements in cognitive skills.Link

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Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood

Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood. Alexandra Killewald, July 13, 2018, Paper, “Whites’ wealth advantage compared to blacks and Hispanics is vast and increases with age. While prior research on wealth gaps focuses primarily on wealth levels, we adopt a life-course perspective that treats wealth as a cumulative outcome and examine wealth accumulation across individuals’ lives. We test to what extent intergenerational disadvantage and disparities in achieved characteristics explain accumulation disparities. We hypothesize that disparities in wealth determinants, like income and education, family and household characteristics, and homeownership and local context, increase through early and middle adulthood, widening wealth accumulation gaps.Link

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Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective

Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, March 2018, Paper, “We study the sources of racial and ethnic disparities in income using de-identified longitudinal data covering nearly the entire U.S. population from 1989-2015. We document three sets of results. First, the intergenerational persistence of disparities varies substantially across racial groups. For example, Hispanic Americans are moving up significantly in the income distribution across generations because they have relatively high rates of intergenerational income mobility. In contrast, black Americans have substantially lower rates of upward mobility and higher rates of downward mobility than whites, leading to large income disparities that persist across generations.Link

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Imagining a Future of Work That Fosters Mobility for All

Imagining a Future of Work That Fosters Mobility for All. Lawrence Katz, February 2018, Paper, “We live in a time of rising economic polarization. Low- and high-wage jobs are growing, while those in the middle are declining or “hollowing out,” not just in the United States, but across the globe.2 Employment used to be a reliable path to economic stability and mobility for a wide range of workers, but that is no longer the case. In 2015, almost a quarter of working Americans earned poverty-level wages,3 defined as equal to or less than the hourly wage that a full-time, year-round worker must earn to sustain a family of four with two children at the official poverty threshold. Workers are confronting rapid labor market changes that are eroding key features of work once largely taken for granted. Five trends are shaping economic opportunity..Link

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