Found 50 article(s) for author 'Rohini Pande'

Repayment Flexibility Can Reduce Financial Stress: A Randomized Control Trial with Microfinance Clients in India

Repayment Flexibility Can Reduce Financial Stress: A Randomized Control Trial with Microfinance Clients in India, Rohini Pande, September 26, 2012, Paper, “Financial stress is widely believed to cause health problems. However, policies seeking to relieve financial stress by limiting debt levels of poor households may directly worsen their economic well-being. We evaluate an alternative policy – increasing the repayment flexibility of debt contracts. A field experiment randomly assigned microfinance clients to a monthly or a traditional weekly installment schedule (N=200). We used cell phones to gather survey data on income, expenditure, and financial stress every 48 hours over seven weeks.”  Link

Tags: , , ,

Introduction to Issue on Malnutrition

Introduction to Issue on Malnutrition. Rohini Pande, April 26, 2012, Paper. ““In poor countries, over a quarter of children under the age of five years are malnourished. The corresponding rate in rich countries is below 3%. Unfortunately, being undernourished as a child is associated with worse economic outcomes as an adult, largely a result of worse adult health. Thus, malnutrition among children creates one of the starkest discrepancies in individual well-being between rich and poor countries. Yet, income growth does not seem to be the solution per se. Despite rapid economic growth in the past 20 years, South Asia, for example, continues to have inordinately high levels of undernourished children.” Link

Tags: ,

Female Leadership Raises Aspirations and Educational Attainment for Girls: A Policy Experiment in India

Female Leadership Raises Aspirations and Educational Attainment for Girls: A Policy Experiment in India. Rohini Pande, January 25, 2012, Paper. “Exploiting a randomized natural experiment in India, we show that female leadership influences adolescent girls’ career aspirations and educational attainment. A 1993 law reserved leadership positions for women in randomly selected village councils. Using 8,453 surveys of adolescents aged 11-15 and their parents in 495 villages, we find that, compared to villages that were never reserved, the gender gap in aspirations closed by 25% in parents and 32% in adolescents in villages assigned to a female leader for two election cycles…” Link

Tags: , ,

Corruption in Developing Countries

Corruption in Developing Countries. Rohini Pande, August 2011, Paper. “Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion in economists’ ability to measure corruption. This, in turn, has led to a new generation of well-identified, microeconomic studies. We review the evidence on corruption in developing countries in light of these recent advances, focusing on three questions: how much corruption is there, what are the efficiency consequences of corruption, and what determines the level of corruption. We find robust evidence that corruption responds to standard economic incentive theory, but also that effects of anti-corruption policies often attenuate as officials find alternate strategies to pursue rents.” Link

Tags: , ,

Can Informed Voters Enforce Better Governance? Experiments in Low Income Democracies

Can Informed Voters Enforce Better Governance? Experiments in Low Income Democracies: Rohini Pande, January 2011: Paper: “This article evaluates a body of recent work which uses field and natural experiments to answer this question. A common finding in the literature is that voter behavior is malleable and that in- formation about the political process and politician performance improves electoral accountability. Limited availability of information thus provides one explanation for the persistence of low quality politicians and the existence of identity politics and electoral malpractices in low-income democracies…” Link

Tags: , , ,

Improving Human Health Through a Market-Friendly Emissions Scheme, By Rohini Pande, 2011, Paper

Improving Human Health Through a Market-Friendly Emissions Scheme. Rohini Pande, 2011, Paper, “The goal of environmental regulation is to protect human health and livelihoods from environmental harms. The harm due to air pollution in India is very large. The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) conservatively estimated that air pollution contributed to 40,351 premature deaths in only 36 cities of India in 1995, and that the total economic loss caused by air pollution in these cities that year was US$1,310 million (MoEF, 1999). While this harm is widely recognized, regulating air pollution remains difficult because many of the economic activities that create air pollution—from transport to industry and electricity production—are themselves important for growth. Tight regulation using traditional models could therefore itself do harm by lowering living standards.” Link

Tags: , ,

Towards an Emissions Trading Scheme for Air Pollutants in India

Towards an Emissions Trading Scheme for Air Pollutants in India. Rohini Pande, August 2010, Paper. ““An emissions trading scheme is a regulatory tool used to reduce pollution emissions at a low overall cost. In such a scheme, the regulator sets the overall amount of emissions but does not decide what any particular source will emit. Industrial plants and other polluters, rather than being told a fixed emissions limit, face a price for their emissions and choose how much to emit, within reasonable limits, taking this price into account. The price of emissions makes pollution costly and gives polluters an incentive to cut back…” Link

Tags: , , ,

Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India

Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India, Rohini Pande, May 2010, Paper, “What constrains the entrepreneurial choices of poor women? Do traditional institutions pose unique barriers to business growth and profitability for female-run enterprises? The explosion of microfinance programs, which typically target poor female entrepreneurs, has drawn attention to these questions. Indeed, one view is that inadequate access to credit prevents women from under- taking high-return business activities. However, one recent empirical study finds low returns to capital in female-run micro-enterprises.” Link

Tags: , , , ,

Can political affirmative action for women reduce gender bias?

Can political affirmative action for women reduce gender bias? Rohini Pande, January 8, 2009, Article. ““While women have the legal right to equal participation in politics in almost every country around the world, they remain vastly underrepresented in local and national politics. As of July 2006, women accounted for only 17% of parliamentarians worldwide, and a woman headed the government in only seven countries (UNICEF, 2007). These numbers vary dramatically by region. In 2004, the highest share of female parliamentarians was found in the Nordic countries (39.7%), while the lowest was in the Arab States (6%)…” Link

Tags: , ,

POWERFUL WOMEN: DOES EXPOSURE REDUCE BIAS?

POWERFUL WOMEN: DOES EXPOSURE REDUCE BIAS? Rohini Pande, January 2009: Paper: “We exploit random assignment of gender quotas for leadership positions across Indian village councils to show that prior exposure to a female leader is associated with electoral gains for women. After ten years of quotas, women are more likely to stand for, and win, elected positions in councils required to have a female chief councilor in the previous two elections. We provide experimental and survey evidence on one channel of influence – changes in voter attitudes. Prior exposure to a female chief councilor improves perceptions of female leader effectiveness and weakens stereotypes about gender roles in public and domestic spheres.” Link

Tags: , ,