Found 33 article(s) for author 'Richard Freeman'

Regulation and innovation: Examining outcomes in Chinese pollution control policy areas

Regulation and innovation: Examining outcomes in Chinese pollution control policy areas. Richard Freeman, October 3, 2019, Paper, “In this paper, we examine how two regionally implemented environmental initiatives in China have impacted the innovation ability of Chinese-listed firms. The regional implementation of these policies, with non-policy regions serving as controls, offers researchers the perfect conditions for a natural experiment. Using research and development (R&D) expenditures and patents as a proxy for innovativeness, we compare the record of innovation of firms inside the policy zones with firms outside the policy zones. We use a Difference-In-Difference-In-Differences (DIDID) method to eliminate endogeneity and take the quality of the patents into account by incorporating sub-items. Results show only one of the regulations had a positive effect and that low quality patents account for most of the innovation. We conclude that reasonably designed environmental regulations, when implemented regionally in competitive industries, do improve Chinese firms’ innovation ability in line with the Porter Hypothesis. The results help us derive some useful policy implications regarding innovation.Link

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From Immigrants to Robots: The Changing Locus of Substitutes for Workers

From Immigrants to Robots: The Changing Locus of Substitutes for Workers. George Borjas, Richard Freeman, January 2019, Paper, “Increased use of robots has roused concern about how robots and other new technologies change the world of work. Using numbers of robots shipped to primarily manufacturing industries as a supply shock to an industry labor market, we estimate that an additional robot reduces employment and wages in an industry by roughly as much as an additional 2 to 3 workers and by 3 to 4 workers in particular groups, which far exceed estimated effects of an additional immigrant on employment and wages. While the growth of robots in the 1996-2016 period of our data was too modest to be a major determinant of wages and employment, the estimated coefficients suggest that continued exponential growth of robots could disrupt job markets in the foreseeable future and thus merit attention from labor analysts.Link

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Do financial constraints curb firms’ efforts to control pollution? Evidence from Chinese manufacturing firms

Do financial constraints curb firms’ efforts to control pollution? Evidence from Chinese manufacturing firms. Richard Freeman, January 12, 2019, Paper, “Financial constraints have long existed in China’s manufacturing sectors. The growth of the manufacturing sector has been slowing in recent years due to increasingly strict environmental regulations that force factories to cut production. In this study, we discussed whether financial constraints were essential in firms’ decision to control pollution, and matched the Annual Surveys of Industrial Firms dataset with the Ministry of Environmental Protection survey data on firms’ expenditures in industrial waste gas emission control. The relationship between calculated investment-cash flow sensitivity (ICFS) and the environmental investment ratio (ratio of firms’ expenditures on pollution control to total assets) was analyzed. We found that, overall, financial constraints had a significantly negative effect on firms’ efforts to reduce waste gas emission.Link

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The Twin Track Model of Employee Voice: An Anglo-American Perspective

The Twin Track Model of Employee Voice: An Anglo-American Perspective. Richard Freeman, 2018, Book Chapter, “This chapter will review the major studies undertaken in the twenty-first century to assess the changing nature of employee voice in the Anglo-American context. These studies are predominantly based on employee perceptions but also include …Link

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Journal of Participation and Employee Ownership (JPEO) in the changing world of participative work practices and pay

Journal of Participation and Employee Ownership (JPEO) in the changing world of participative work practices and pay. Richard Freeman, 2018, Paper, “Work practices and modes of pay have changed in recent decades. The combination of an increasingly educated work force, new information and communication technologies, the influx of AI and big data into business practices from production and sales to human resources, the increased importance of teamwork and the growth of non-standard work arrangements which blur the distinction between labor contracts and sales contracts, has combined with globalization of production to create a wide diversity in the way firms, workers, unions and governments interact within organizations and in the broader labor market.Link

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The Persistence of Colonial Laws: Why Rwanda is Ready to Remove Outdated Legal Barriers to Health, Human Rights, and Development

The Persistence of Colonial Laws: Why Rwanda is Ready to Remove Outdated Legal Barriers to Health, Human Rights, and Development. Richard Freeman, Agnes Binagwaho, June 10, 2018, Paper, “Rwanda has earned a reputation as a trailblazer among developing nations. Especially in the health sector, it is often the early-adopter of international recommendations and new technologies. Yet at times, Rwanda’s momentum is impeded when it must grapple with a challenge that post-colonial societies commonly face: the persistence of colonial laws. When left in force, these legal vestiges, once designed to oppress and subordinate, can rear their head at unexpected moments, causing delays in policy implementation, uncertainty, or unjust outcomes.Link

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The Role of Employee Stock Purchase Plans — Gift and Incentive? Evidence from a Multinational Corporation.

The Role of Employee Stock Purchase Plans — Gift and Incentive? Evidence from a Multinational Corporation. Richard Freeman, May 29, 2018, Paper, “Employee share purchase plans (ESPPs) give free or discounted shares of stock to workers who buy shares in the hope that the greater share ownership will retain workers, build loyalty and raise productivity, as in gift exchange models. Using measures of workers’ organizational loyalty and sense of ownership in a multinational firm that puts the ESPP at the heart of its compensation policy, we find that workers who join the ESPP have lower turnover intentions and do less on‐the‐job search than others, motivated in part by gift exchange reciprocity, and also respond to the group incentive of ownership with greater work effort, longer hours, and lower absence rates. Workers in workplaces with high perceived rates of ESPP participation are more likely to intervene against shirkers. The results appear robust to the selectivity of who joins the ESPP. The mix of gifting shares to workers who buy shares and the group incentive of ownership makes ESPPs a unique dual form of compensation.Link

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Ownership when AI robots do more of the work and earn more of the income

Ownership when AI robots do more of the work and earn more of the income. Richard Freeman, May 2, 2018, Paper, “The purpose of this paper is to examine the likely impact of AI robotics technology on the labor market through the lens of comparative advantage. Design/methodology/approach The first section reviews the recent success of AI in outperforming humans in cognitive intense activities such as Go, poker and other strategic games, which portends a shift in comparative advantage in human brain power work to machines. It notes the potential for a portfolio of specialized computer algorithms to compete with human general intelligence in work. The analysis contributes to the debate between economists dubious about claims that AI robotics will disrupt work and futurists who expect many jobs to be fully automated in coming years. It advances three “laws of robo-economics” to guide thinking about the new technologies and presents evidence that growing robot intensity has begun to impact the job market.Link

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Evidence: What the U.S. Research Shows about Worker Ownership

Evidence: What the U.S. Research Shows about Worker Ownership. Richard Freeman, 2017, Paper, “The Oxford Handbook of Mutual, Co-operative, and Co-Owned Business investigates all types of ‘member owned’ organizations, whether consumer co-operatives, agricultural and producer co-operatives, worker co-operatives, mutual building societies, friendly societies, credit unions, solidarity organizations, mutual insurance companies, or employee-owned companies. Such organizations can be owned by their consumers, the producers, or the employees – whether through single-stakeholder or multi-stakeholder ownership. This complex set of organizations is named differently across countries: from ‘mutual’ in the UK, to ‘solidarity cooperatives’ in Latin America.Link

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