Found 10 article(s) for author 'Prithwiraj Choudhury'

Migrant Inventors and the Technological Advantage of Nations

Migrant Inventors and the Technological Advantage of Nations. Prithwiraj Choudhury, 2019, Paper, “We investigate the relationship between the presence of migrant inventors and the dynamics of innovation in the migrants’ receiving countries. We find that countries are 25 to 50 percent more likely to gain advantage in patenting in certain technologies given a twofold increase in the number of foreign inventors from other nations that specialize in those same technologies. For the average country in our sample this number corresponds to only 25 inventors and a standard deviation of 135. We deal with endogeneity concerns by using historical migration networks to instrument for stocks of migrant inventors. Our results generalize the evidence of previous studies that show how migrant inventors “import” knowledge from their home countries which translate into higher patenting. We complement our results with micro-evidence showing that migrant inventors are more prevalent in the first bulk of patents of a country in a given technology, as compared to patents filed at later stages. We interpret these results as tangible evidence of migrants facilitating the technology-specific diffusion of knowledge across nations.Link

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The Ethnic Migrant Inventor Effect: Codification and Recombination of Knowledge Across Borders

The Ethnic Migrant Inventor Effect: Codification and Recombination of Knowledge Across Borders. Prithwiraj Choudhury, October 22, 2018, Paper, “Ethnic migrant inventors may differ from locals in terms of the knowledge they bring to host firms. Using a unique dataset of Chinese and Indian herbal patents filed in the United States, we find that an increase in the supply of first‐generation ethnic migrant inventors increases the rate of codification of herbal knowledge at U.S. assignees by 4.5 percent. Our identification comes from an exogenous shock to the quota of H1B visas and from a list of entities exempted from the shock. We also find that ethnic migrant inventors are more likely to engage in reuse of knowledge previously locked within the cultural context of their home regions, whereas knowledge recombination is more likely to be pursued by teams comprising inventors from other ethnic backgrounds.Link

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Migration and Innovation: Evidence from Technology Take-offs

Migration and Innovation: Evidence from Technology Take-offs. Prithwiraj Choudhury, October 13, 2018, Paper, “We investigate the relationship between international migration flows and the dynamics of innovation in the migrants’ receiving and sending countries. We find that countries are 3.5% more likely to become significant producers of a technology for every twofold increase in the stock of immigrants (30,000 people, on average) from countries that excel in that same technology. Our results are much stronger for skilled migrants, and are mostly driven by international migration rather than by cross-border trade or investments. We use a migration gravity framework to instrument for migrant stocks, reducing possible endogeneity concerns. We interpret these results as tangible evidence of migrants facilitating the diffusion of knowledge across nations.Link

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Shifting Centers of Gravity: Host Country versus Headquarters Influences on MNC Subsidiary Knowledge Inheritance

Shifting Centers of Gravity: Host Country versus Headquarters Influences on MNC Subsidiary Knowledge Inheritance. Prithwiraj Choudhury, Tarun Khanna, 2018, Paper, “While there is a rich literature of knowledge inflows into the multinational subsidiary, the literature is rooted in how subsidiaries inherit knowledge from the headquarters (HQ). In this paper we take the first step to liberate the construct of “subsidiary knowledge inheritance” from its umbilical attachment to the MNC headquarters. We build on the prior theory of subsidiary absorptive capacity and argue that larger subsidiaries, characterized by greater knowledge stock and a greater fraction of local employees, could plausibly absorb more knowledge from the local host country context compared to absorbing knowledge from the headquarters.Link

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The Future of Patent Examination at the USPTO

The Future of Patent Examination at the USPTO. Prithwiraj Choudhury, Tarun Khanna, April 2017, Case, “The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is the federal government agency responsible for evaluating and granting patents and trademarks. In 2015, the USPTO employed approximately 8,000 patent examiners who granted nearly 300,000 patents to inventors. As of April 2016, it took roughly 26 months for a patent application to move through the evaluation process, which exceeded the office’s processing goal of 20 months. In August 2016, Andrew Hirshfeld, the commissioner for patents at the USPTO, considered the current state of patent examination and future possibilities. In recent years, a number of new and exciting tools enabled by advances in telework, machine learning, and other approaches had emerged. Hirshfeld hoped to maximize these tools’ utility in order to enhance patent examiners’ work and productivity.Link

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Contextual Knowledge and Ethnic Migrant Inventors

Contextual Knowledge and Ethnic Migrant Inventors. Prithwiraj Choudhury, 2017, Paper, “We study the role of ethnic Chinese/Indian migrant inventors in transferring contextual knowledge across borders and the role of ethnic networks in further disseminating such knowledge. Using a unique dataset of herbal patents filed in the United States by western firms and universities, we test whether contextual knowledge is codified in the west by ethnic migrant inventors and spread by their ethnic networks. Our identification comes from an exogenous shock to the quota of H1B visas, and a list of institutions that were exempted from the shock. We generate a control group of non-herbal patents that have similar medicinal purposes as our herbal patents through textual matching. Using this framework, we estimate a triple differences equation, and find that herbal patents are likely to be filed by Chinese/Indian migrant inventors and are likely to be initially cited by other Chinese/Indian inventors.Link

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Collaborate to Innovate? Teams and Patent Generation in a Global R&D Center

Collaborate to Innovate? Teams and Patent Generation in a Global R&D Center. Prithwiraj Choudhury, April 2016, Paper. “How should firms organize their employees to generate patents? Are larger teams better than smaller teams, and should their members span formal and informal intra-firm boundaries? We argue that larger teams face greater coordination costs and cooperation problems, and even greater challenges if they span more intra-firm boundaries. Hence, the relationship between team size and patent generation will be more negative if team members belong to more formal organizational units but more positive if they belong to more overlapping informal communities. We also predict that these moderating effects will be exponential rather than linear in form. We test the hypotheses using a proprietary dataset that combines patent data with fine-grained personnel data from the Indian R&D center of a Fortune 50 technology company.Link

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Return migration and geography of innovation in MNEs: a natural experiment of knowledge production by local workers reporting to return migrants

Return migration and geography of innovation in MNEs: a natural experiment of knowledge production by local workers reporting to return migrants. Prithwiraj Choudhury, June 5, 2015, Paper. “I study whether return migrants facilitate knowledge production by local employees working for them at geographically distant research and development (R&D) locations. Using unique personnel and patenting data for 1315 employees at the Indian R&D center of a Fortune 500 technology firm, I exploit a natural experiment where the assignment of managers for newly hired college graduates is mandated by rigid HR rules…Link

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Bio-Piracy or Prospering Together? Fuzzy Set and Qualitative Analysis of Herbal Patenting by Firms

Bio-Piracy or Prospering Together? Fuzzy Set and Qualitative Analysis of Herbal Patenting by Firms. Prithwiraj Choudhury, Tarun Khanna, February 28, 2014, Paper. “Since the 1990s, several Western firms have filed patents based on medicinal herbs from emerging markets, evoking protests from local stakeholders against ‘bio-piracy’. We explore conditions under which firms and local stakeholders share rents from such patents. Our theoretical model builds on two distinct strategy literatures: firms appropriating rents from new technologies and firms managing stakeholders…” Link Verified October 12, 2014

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Toward Resource Independence—Why State-Owned Entities Become Multinationals: An Empirical Study of India’s Public R&D Laboratories

Toward Resource Independence—Why State-Owned Entities Become Multinationals: An Empirical Study of India’s Public R&D Laboratories. Prithwiraj Choudhury, Tarun Khanna, 2014, Paper. “In this paper, we build on the standard resource dependence theory and its departure suggested by Vernon to offer a novel explanation for why state-owned entities (SOEs) might seek a global footprint and global cash flows: to achieve resource independence from other state actors. In the context of state-owned entities, the power-use hypothesis of standard resource dependence theory can be used to…”  Link Verified October 12, 2014

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