Found 11 article(s) for author 'policy design'

Following Situation-Specific Social Expectations: Laboratory Evidence on Pro-Social Following

Following Situation-Specific Social Expectations: Laboratory Evidence on Pro-Social Following. Michael Hiscox, December 30, 2019, Paper, “We design an experiment where second-movers anonymously contribute to a charity after a first mover’s contribution, and provide evidence that whether and how subjects follow first-movers depends on situation-specific social expectations. Subjects who observe a first-mover and know an audience will see their anonymous contribution respond positively to what their first-mover contributes. Subjects who observe a first-mover but have no audience respond positively what first-movers are expected to contribute. Subjects who do not observe a first-mover respond to what is expected in their situation. The evidence is inconsistent with standard explanations of following, such as information transmission, image concerns, reciprocity, or cost structure. We conclude that subjects follow if it is expected of them, and what they follow depends on whether someone might be disappointed with the outcome.Link

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State Capabilities for Problem-Oriented Governance

State Capabilities for Problem-Oriented Governance. Quinton Mayne, Jorrit de Jong, 2019, Paper, “Governments around the world are increasingly recognizing the power of problem-oriented governance as a way to address complex public problems. As an approach to policy design and implementation, problem-oriented governance radically emphasizes the need for organizations to continuously learn and adapt. Scholars of public management, public administration, policy studies, international development, and political science have made important contributions to this problem-orientation turn; however, little systematic attention has been paid to the question of the state capabilities that underpin problem-oriented governance. In this article, we address this gap in the literature. We argue that three core capabilities are structurally conducive to problemoriented governance: a reflective-improvement capability, a collaborative capability, and a dataanalytic capability. The article presents a conceptual framework for understanding each of these capabilities, including their chief constituent elements. It ends with a discussion of how the framework can advance empirical research as well as public-sector reform.Link

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Feasible Nash Implementation of Social Choice Rules When the Designer Does Not Know Endowments

Feasible Nash Implementation of Social Choice Rules When the Designer Does Not Know Endowments. Eric Maskin, May 31, 2019, Paper, “The aim of the present paper is to analyze the problem of assuring the feasibility of a mechanism (game form), implementing in Nash equilibrium a given social choice rule abbreviated as (SCR) when the mechanism is constrained as to the way in which it is permitted to depend on endowments. A social choice rule is a correspondence specifying outcomes considered to be desirable in a given economy (environment). A mechanism is defined by (a) an outcome function and (b) a strategy domain prescribed for each player. Our outcome functions are not permitted to depend at all on the initial endowments. As to strategy domains, the with agent’s strategy domain Si is only permitted to depend on that agent’s endowment, but not on the endowments, other agents. (For earlier results concerning endowment manipulation, see Postlewaite (1979) and Sertel (1990).)Link

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The Political Representation of Economic Interests: Subversion of Democracy or Middle-Class Supremacy?

The Political Representation of Economic Interests: Subversion of Democracy or Middle-Class Supremacy? Torben Iversen, 2018, Paper, “A new and highly-cited literature on redistribution and economic policy-making paints a gloomy picture of democracy, which we refer to as the Subversion of Democracy Model (SDM). It comes in two varieties. One uses public opinion data to show that policies are strongly biased towards to the preferences of the rich; another uses macrolevel data on inequality and redistribution to show that democratic governments are no longer responding to rising inequality. This paper is a critical reassessment of this literature. We point to methodological and theoretical issues that may bias the results, and we propose solutions that point to a very different interpretation of the data, which we refer to as the Representative Democracy Model (RDM).Link

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The Political Economy of Ideas: On Ideas Versus Interests in Policymaking

The Political Economy of Ideas: On Ideas Versus Interests in Policymaking. Dani Rodrik, March 2018, Paper, “We develop a conceptual framework to highlight the role of ideas as a catalyst for policy and institutional change. We make an explicit distinction between ideas and vested interests and show how they feed into each other. In doing so the paper integrates the Keynes-Hayek perspective on the importance of ideas with the currently more fashionable Stigler-Becker (interests only) approach to political economy. We distinguish between two kinds of ideational politics – the battle among different worldviews on the efficacy of policy (worldview politics) versus the politics of victimhood, pride and identity (identity politics).Link

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The Welfare Consequences of Taxing Carbon

The Welfare Consequences of Taxing Carbon. Dale Jorgenson, 2018, Paper, “We find CO2 emissions abatement to be invariant to the chosen recycling scheme. This means that policy makers need not compromise their environmental objectives when designing carbon tax swap options. We also find additional emissions reductions beyond the scope of coverage and points of taxation.Link

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Which Europeans Like Nudges? Approval and Controversy in Four European Countries

Which Europeans Like Nudges? Approval and Controversy in Four European Countries. Cass Sunstein, January 29, 2018, Paper, “Policy makers show an increasing interest in “nudges”—behaviorally motivated interventions that steer people in certain directions but maintain freedom of consumer choice. Despite this interest, little evidence has surfaced about which population groups support nudges and nudging. We report the results of nationally representative surveys in Denmark, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Individual, household, and geographic characteristics served as predictors of nudge approval, and the count of significant predictors as measures of controversy.Link

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Using Data to More Rapidly Address Difficult U.S. Social Problems

Using Data to More Rapidly Address Difficult U.S. Social Problems. Jeffrey Liebman, December 21, 2017, Paper, “This article argues that the evidence-based-policy movement needs to supplement its current emphasis on program evaluations with an approach that uses data at a much higher frequency to improve the administration and impact of government-funded social service programs. Doing so offers the best chance of making significant progress in ameliorating challenging social problems. I describe how an idealized government social service agency could use data and data analysis to improve its results, review the barriers that prevent agencies from operating in this way, and outline how targeted resources and technical assistance can help to overcome these barriers.Link

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Panacea or diagnosis? Imaginaries of innovation and the ‘MIT model’ in three political cultures

Panacea or diagnosis? Imaginaries of innovation and the ‘MIT model’ in three political cultures. Sheila Jasanoff, June 1, 2017, Paper, “Innovation studies continue to struggle with an apparent disconnect between innovation’s supposedly universal dynamics and a sense that policy frameworks and associated instruments of innovation are often ineffectual or even harmful when transported across regions or countries. Using a cross-country comparative analysis of three implementations of the ‘MIT model’ of innovation in the UK, Portugal and Singapore, we show how key features in the design, implementation and performance of the model cannot be explained as mere variations on an identical solution to the same underlying problem.Link

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