Found 15 article(s) for author 'Patents'

Some Facts of High-Tech Patenting

Some Facts of High-Tech Patenting. Josh Lerner, July 2018, Paper, “Patenting in software, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence has grown rapidly in recent years. Such patents are acquired primarily by large US technology firms such as IBM, Microsoft, Google, and HP, as well as by Japanese multinationals such as Sony, Canon, and Fujitsu. Chinese patenting in the US is small but growing rapidly, and world-leading for drone technology. Patenting in machine learning has seen exponential growth since 2010, although patenting in neural networks saw a strong burst of activity in the 1990s that has only recently been surpassed.Link

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The Future of Patent Examination at the USPTO

The Future of Patent Examination at the USPTO. Prithwiraj Choudhury, Tarun Khanna, April 2017, Case, “The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is the federal government agency responsible for evaluating and granting patents and trademarks. In 2015, the USPTO employed approximately 8,000 patent examiners who granted nearly 300,000 patents to inventors. As of April 2016, it took roughly 26 months for a patent application to move through the evaluation process, which exceeded the office’s processing goal of 20 months. In August 2016, Andrew Hirshfeld, the commissioner for patents at the USPTO, considered the current state of patent examination and future possibilities. In recent years, a number of new and exciting tools enabled by advances in telework, machine learning, and other approaches had emerged. Hirshfeld hoped to maximize these tools’ utility in order to enhance patent examiners’ work and productivity.Link

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The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age

The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age. Tom Nicholas, January 2017, Paper, “We examine the golden age of US innovation by undertaking a major data collection exercise linking US patents to state and county-level aggregates and matching inventors to Federal Censuses between 1880 and 1940. We identify a causal relationship between patented inventions and long run economic growth and outline a basic framework for analyzing key macro and micro-level determinants. We explore drivers of regional performance including population density, financial development, geographic connectedness and social structure. We then profile the characteristics of inventors and their life cycle, measure the returns to technological development, and document the relationship between innovation, inequality and social mobility. Our new data help to address important questions related to innovation and long-run growth dynamics.Link

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Growth through Heterogeneous Innovations

Growth through Heterogeneous Innovations. William Kerr, December 16, 2016, Paper, “We build a tractable growth model where multi-product incumbents invest in internal innovations to improve their existing products, while new entrants and incumbents invest in external innovations to acquire new product lines. External and internal innovations generate heterogeneous innovation qualities, and firm size affects innovation incentives. This framework allows us to analyze how different types of innovation contribute to economic growth and how the firm size distribution can have important consequences for the types of innovations realized. Our model aligns with many observed empirical regularities, and we quantify our framework by matching Census Bureau operating data with patent data for U.S. firms. We observe that internal innovation scales moderately faster with firm size than external innovation.” Link

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Innovation network

Innovation network. William Kerr, October 11, 2016, Paper, “We describe the strength and importance of the innovation network that links patenting technology fields together. We quantify that technological advances spill out of individual fields and enrich the work of neighboring technologies, but these spillovers are also localized and not universal. Thus, innovation advances in one part of the network can significantly impact nearby disciplines but rarely those very far away. We verify the strength and stable importance of the innovation network by showing how past innovations can predict future innovations in other fields over 10-y horizons. This better understanding of how scientific progress occurs and how inventions build upon themselves is an important input to our depictions of the cumulative process of innovation and its economic growth consequences.Link

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Collaborate to Innovate? Teams and Patent Generation in a Global R&D Center

Collaborate to Innovate? Teams and Patent Generation in a Global R&D Center. Prithwiraj Choudhury, April 2016, Paper. “How should firms organize their employees to generate patents? Are larger teams better than smaller teams, and should their members span formal and informal intra-firm boundaries? We argue that larger teams face greater coordination costs and cooperation problems, and even greater challenges if they span more intra-firm boundaries. Hence, the relationship between team size and patent generation will be more negative if team members belong to more formal organizational units but more positive if they belong to more overlapping informal communities. We also predict that these moderating effects will be exponential rather than linear in form. We test the hypotheses using a proprietary dataset that combines patent data with fine-grained personnel data from the Indian R&D center of a Fortune 50 technology company.Link

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Intellectual Property Rights Protection, Ownership, and Innovation: Evidence from China.

Intellectual Property Rights Protection, Ownership, and Innovation: Evidence from China. Josh Lerner, March 1, 2015, Paper, “Using a difference-in-difference approach, we study how intellectual property right (IPR) protection affects innovation in China in the years around the privatizations of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Innovation increases after SOE privatizations, and this increase is larger in cities with strong IPR protection. Our results support theoretical arguments that IPR protection strengthens firms’ incentives to innovate and that private sector firms are more sensitive to IPR protection than SOEs.Link

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Prizes, Patents and the Search for Longitude

Prizes, Patents and the Search for Longitude. Tom Nicholas, July 2015, Paper, “The 1714 Longitude Act created the Board of Longitude to administer a large monetary prize and progress payments for the precise determination of a ship’s longitude. It is frequently cited to justify the use of prize-based incentives over patents. Using new data on marine chronometer inventors we show that while the timing of the Board’s progress payments did not systematically influence entry or patents, the propensity to patent was high. Furthermore, the level of patents increased during the post-Board era as chronometers were cumulatively refined. The search for longitude relied on a complementarity between prizes and patents to produce a socially valuable innovation when private investment was low.Link

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Shielded Innovation

Shielded Innovation. Lauren Cohen, June 2015, Paper. “We show that increased litigation risk has driven innovators to shield themselves by shifting innovation out of industry and into universities. We show both theoretically and empirically that litigation by Non-Practicing Entities (NPEs) pushes innovation to spaces with reduced litigation threat. Innovation has shifted into universities (and away from public and private firms) in exactly those industries with the most aggressive NPE litigation, precisely following extensive NPE litigation. The extent of innovation shielding is large and significant. An increase of 100 NPE lawsuits…Link

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Global Collaborative Patents

Global Collaborative Patents, William R. Kerr, Paper. “We study the prevalence and traits of global collaborative U.S. patents for U.S. public companies, deÖned to be patents with at least one inventor inside the United States and one abroad. Collaborative patents are frequently observed when a U.S. public company is entering into a new foreign region for innovative work, especially in less developed settings where intellectual property protection is weak. Collaborative patents are also more frequent when the U.S.-based workforce of the Örm has a strong ethnic component to it…” Link

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