Found 10 article(s) for author 'migration'

The Purposes of Refugee Education: Policy and Practice of Including Refugees in National Education Systems

The Purposes of Refugee Education: Policy and Practice of Including Refugees in National Education Systems. Sarah Dryden-Peterson, July 16, 2019, Paper, “This article explores the understood purposes of refugee education at global, national, and school levels. To do so, we focus on a radical shift in global policy to integrate refugees into national education systems and the processes of vernacularization accompanying its widespread implementation. We use a comparative case study approach; our dataset comprises global policy documents and original interviews (n = 147) and observations in 14 refugee-hosting nation-states. We analyze how the purposes of refugee education are understood and acted upon by actors occupying diverse positions across these nation-states and over time. We demonstrate that the articulated purposes of refugee education are oriented toward possible futures for refugees, and they presuppose refugees’ access to quality education, social belonging, and economic opportunities. Yet we find that across nation-states of exile, refugees’ access to these resources is tenuous. Our findings suggest reconceptualizing refugee education to reflect how refugees are simultaneously embedded within multiple national contexts and to address the exclusions they face within each one. This study of refugee education has implications for understanding the purposes of education in other ever-more-common contexts of uncertainty, including the rapid economic and social changes brought about by migration, globalization, and technology. Empirically, understanding the purposes of refugee education is critical in a time of unprecedented forced migration.Link

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Migration and Innovation: Evidence from Technology Take-offs

Migration and Innovation: Evidence from Technology Take-offs. Prithwiraj Choudhury, October 13, 2018, Paper, “We investigate the relationship between international migration flows and the dynamics of innovation in the migrants’ receiving and sending countries. We find that countries are 3.5% more likely to become significant producers of a technology for every twofold increase in the stock of immigrants (30,000 people, on average) from countries that excel in that same technology. Our results are much stronger for skilled migrants, and are mostly driven by international migration rather than by cross-border trade or investments. We use a migration gravity framework to instrument for migrant stocks, reducing possible endogeneity concerns. We interpret these results as tangible evidence of migrants facilitating the diffusion of knowledge across nations.Link

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The Gift of Global Talent: How Migration Shapes Business, Economy & Society

The Gift of Global Talent: How Migration Shapes Business, Economy & Society. William Kerr, 2018, Book, “The global race for talent is on, with countries and businesses competing for the best and brightest. Talented individuals migrate much more frequently than the general population, and the United States has received exceptional inflows of human capital. This foreign talent has transformed U.S. science and engineering, reshaped the economy, and influenced society at large. But America is bogged down in thorny debates on immigration policy, and the world around the United States is rapidly catching up, especially China and India. The future is quite uncertain, and the global talent puzzle deserves close examination.Link

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Why Has Regional Income Convergence in the U.S. Declined?

Why Has Regional Income Convergence in the U.S. Declined? Daniel Shoag, July 2017, Paper, “The past thirty years have seen a dramatic decline in the rate of income convergence across states and in population flows to high-income places. These changes coincide with a disproportionate increase in housing prices in high-income places, a divergence in the skill-specific returns to moving to high-income places, and a redirection of lowskill migration away from high-income places. We develop a model in which rising housing prices in high-income areas deter low-skill migration and slow income convergence. Using a new panel measure of housing supply regulations, we demonstrate the importance of this channel in the data.Link

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Linking the Growth of Globalisation with the Evolution of Transport Technology

Linking the Growth of Globalisation with the Evolution of Transport Technology. Tom Nicholas, January 29, 2017, Paper, “We examine the golden age of U.S. innovation by undertaking a major data collection exercise linking historical U.S. patents to state and county-level aggregates and matching inventors to Federal Censuses between 1880 and 1940. We identify a causal relationship between patented inventions and long-run economic growth and outline a basic framework for analyzing key macro and micro-level determinants. We find a positive relationship between innovation and drivers of regional performance including population density, financial development and geographic connectedness. We also explore the impact of social structure measured by slavery and religion.Link

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Welcome Home in a Crisis: Effects of Return Migration on the Non-migrants’ Wages and Employment

Welcome Home in a Crisis: Effects of Return Migration on the Non-migrants’ Wages and Employment. Ricardo Hausmann, 2017, Paper, “Albanian migrants in Greece were particularly affected by the Greek crisis, which spurred a wave of return migration that increased Albania’s labor force by 5% between 2011 and 2014 alone. We study how this return migration affected the employment chances and earnings of Albanians who never migrated. We find positive effects on the wages of low-skilled non-migrants and overall positive effects on employment. The gains partially offset the sharp drop in remittances in the observed period. The employment gains are concentrated in the agricultural sector, where most return migrants engage in self-employment and entrepreneurship. Businesses run by return migrants seem to pull Albanians from non-participation, self-employment and subsistence agriculture into commercial agriculture.Link

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The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age

The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age. Tom Nicholas, January 2017, Paper, “We examine the golden age of US innovation by undertaking a major data collection exercise linking US patents to state and county-level aggregates and matching inventors to Federal Censuses between 1880 and 1940. We identify a causal relationship between patented inventions and long run economic growth and outline a basic framework for analyzing key macro and micro-level determinants. We explore drivers of regional performance including population density, financial development, geographic connectedness and social structure. We then profile the characteristics of inventors and their life cycle, measure the returns to technological development, and document the relationship between innovation, inequality and social mobility. Our new data help to address important questions related to innovation and long-run growth dynamics.Link

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Global Talent Flows

Global Talent Flows. William Kerr, November 6, 2016, Paper, “The global distribution of talent is highly skewed and the resources available to countries to develop and utilize their best and brightest vary substantially. The migration of skilled workers across countries tilts the deck even further. Using newly available data, we first review the landscape of global talent mobility, which is both asymmetric and rising in importance. We next consider the determinants of global talent flows at the individual and firm levels and sketch some important implications. Third, we review the national gatekeepers for skilled migration and broad differences in approaches used to select migrants for admission. Looking forward, the capacity of people, firms, and countries to successfully navigate this tangled web of global talent will be critical to their success.Link

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The New Economic Case for Migration Restrictions: An Assessment

The New Economic Case for Migration Restrictions: An Assessment. Lant Pritchett, February 2016, Paper. “For decades, migration economics has stressed the effects of migration restrictions on income distribution in the host country. Recently the literature has taken a new direction by estimating the costs of migration restrictions to global economic efficiency. In contrast, a new strand of research posits that migration restrictions could be not only desirably redistributive, but in fact globally efficient. This is the new economic case for migration restrictions.Link

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Global Social Protection: Setting the Agenda

Global Social Protection: Setting the Agenda. Jocelyn Viterna, 2015, Paper, “In todays’ world, more than 220 million people live in a country that is not their own. Many people live transnational lives but the social contract between citizen and state is national. How are people on the move protected and provided for in this new global context? Have institutional sources of social welfare begun to cross borders to meet the needs of transnational individuals? This paper proposes a new Global Social Protection (GSP) research agenda, summarizing what we know and what we need to do moving forward. What protections exist for migrants, how are the organized across borders, who can access them and who gets left out? .Link

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