Found 72 article(s) for author 'Labor'

On Equal Pay Day, Why The Gender Gap Still Exists

On Equal Pay Day, Why The Gender Gap Still Exists. Claudia Goldin, April 12, 2016, Audio. “President Obama has declared today Equal Pay Day. There’s a reason it falls on April 12. As the proclamation says, today marks how far into the new year women would have to work in order to earn the same as men did in the previous year. Women, on average, make 79 cents for every dollar men earn. Harvard economics professor Claudia Goldin has looked into the reasons for this, and you say the reason is not primarily discrimination. Is that right?Link

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Tax Aversion in Labor Supply

Tax Aversion in Labor Supply. Michael I. Norton, April 2016, Paper. “In a real-effort laboratory experiment, labor supply decreases more with the introduction of a tax than with a financially equivalent drop in wages. This “tax aversion” is large in magnitude: when we decompose the productivity decrease that arises from taxation, we estimate that 40% is due to the lower net wage and the remaining 60% to tax aversion. This tax aversion affects labor supply more on the extensive margin (working less) than on the intensive margin (being less productive while working). The aversion is equally strong whether tax revenue goes to the U.S. government or back to the experimenter (a “laboratory tax”). We discuss the implications of our results for the relationship between labor supply and taxation.Link

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The Labor Supply of Undocumented Immigrants

The Labor Supply of Undocumented Immigrants. George Borjas, March 2016, Paper. “The Department of Homeland Security estimates that 11.4 million undocumented persons reside in the United States. Congress and President Obama are considering a number of proposals to regularize the status of the undocumented population and provide a “path to citizenship.” Any future change in the immigration status of this group is bound to have significant effects on the labor market, on the number of persons that qualify for various government-provided benefits, on the timing of retirement, on the size of the population receiving Social Security benefits, and on the funding of almost all of these government programs. This paper provides a comprehensive empirical study of the labor supply behavior of undocumented immigrants in the United States.Link

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How to use Economic Theory to Improve Estimators, with an Application to Labor Demand and Wage Inequality

How to use Economic Theory to Improve Estimators, with an Application to Labor Demand and Wage Inequality. Maximilian Kasy, March 12, 2016, Paper. “Economic theory, when it has empirical content, provides testable restrictions on empirically identified objects. These empirical objects might be estimated in an unrestricted way, leading to estimates of potentially large variance, or subject to the theoretical restrictions, leading to estimates of lower variance that are potentially biased, inconsistent, and non-robust.Link

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Tethered Lives: A Couple-Based Perspective on the Consequences of Parenthood for Time Use, Occupation, and Wages

Tethered Lives: A Couple-Based Perspective on the Consequences of Parenthood for Time Use, Occupation, and Wages. Alexandra Killewald, March 2016, Paper. “Prior research on parenthood effects has typically used single-sex models and estimated average effects. By contrast, we estimate population-level variability in partners’ changes in housework hours, paid work hours, occupation traits, and wages after becoming parents, and we explore whether one partner’s adjustment offsets or supplements the other’s. We find tradeoffs between spouses on paid work adjustments to parenthood, but complementarity in adjustments to housework hours, occupation traits, and wages. The effect of parenthood on wives’ behaviors is larger and more variable than husbands’ in every domain.Link

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Global Social Protection: Setting the Agenda

Global Social Protection: Setting the Agenda. Jocelyn Viterna, 2015, Paper, “In todays’ world, more than 220 million people live in a country that is not their own. Many people live transnational lives but the social contract between citizen and state is national. How are people on the move protected and provided for in this new global context? Have institutional sources of social welfare begun to cross borders to meet the needs of transnational individuals? This paper proposes a new Global Social Protection (GSP) research agenda, summarizing what we know and what we need to do moving forward. What protections exist for migrants, how are the organized across borders, who can access them and who gets left out? .Link

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Education, Participation, and the Revival of US Economic Growth

Education, Participation, and the Revival of US Economic Growth. Dale Jorgenson, October 1, 2015, Paper. “Labor quality growth represents the upgrading of the labor force through higher educational attainment and greater experience. While much attention has been devoted to the aging of the labor force and the ongoing retirement of the baby boomers, the looming plateau in average educational attainment of U.S. workers has been overlooked. The educational attainment of people emerging from the educational system, while high, has been nearly constant for the past several decades. Rising average educational attainment is about to become part of U.S. economic history. We define the participation rate for each age-sex group as the number of employed as a proportion of the population of that age group. This rate could also be called the employment participation rate.” Link

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The Value of Postsecondary Credentials in the Labor Market: An Experimental Study

The Value of Postsecondary Credentials in the Labor Market: An Experimental Study. Claudia Golden, Lawrence Katz, September 2014. Paper. “We study employers’ perceptions of postsecondary degrees using a field experiment. We randomly assign the sector and selectivity of institution to fictitious resumes and send them to real vacancy postings on a large online job board. According to our results, a bachelor’s degree in business from a for-profit “online” institution is 22 percent less likely to receive a callback than a similar degree from a non-selective public institution…” Link

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Inequality, Labor Market Segmentation, and Preferences for Redistribution.

Inequality, Labor Market Segmentation, and Preferences for Redistribution. James Alt, Torben Iversen, August 11, 2014, Paper, “We formalize and examine two overlapping models that show how rising inequality combined with ethnic and racial heterogeneity can explain why many advanced industrial countries have experienced a drop in support for redistribution as inequality has risen. One model, based on altruism and homophily, focuses on the effect of increasing ‘social distance’ between the poor and the middle class, especially when minorities are increasingly overrepresented among the very poor.Link

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It’s Where You Work: Increases in Earnings Dispersion across Establishments and Individuals in the U.S.

It’s Where You Work: Increases in Earnings Dispersion across Establishments and Individuals in the U.S. Richard Freeman, August 2014, Paper. “This paper links data on establishments and individuals to analyze the role of establishments in the increase in inequality that has become a central topic in economic analysis and policy debate. It decomposes changes in the variance of log earnings among individuals into the part due to changes in earnings among establishments and the part due to changes in earnings within-establishments and finds that much of the 1970s-2010s increase in earnings inequality results from increased dispersion of the earnings among the establishments where individuals work. It also shows that the divergence of establishment earnings occurred within and across industries and was associated with increased variance of revenues per worker. Our results direct attention to the fundamental role of establishment-level pay setting and economic adjustments in earnings inequality.Link

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