Found 32 article(s) for author 'Josh Lerner'

Corruption, Government Subsidies, and Innovation: Evidence from China

Corruption, Government Subsidies, and Innovation: Evidence from China. Josh Lerner, 2018, Paper, “Governments are important financiers of private sector innovation. While these public funds can ease capital constraints and information asymmetries, they can also introduce political distortions. We empirically explore these issues for China, where a quarter of firms’ R&D expenditures come from government subsidies. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we find that the anticorruption campaign that began in 2012 and the departures of local government officials responsible for innovation programs strengthened the relationship between firms’ historical innovative efficiency and subsequent subsidy awards and depressed the influence of their corruption-related expenditures.Link

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Looking for Alternatives: Pension Investments around the World, 2008 to 2017

Looking for Alternatives: Pension Investments around the World, 2008 to 2017. Victoria Ivashina, Josh Lerner, August 24, 2018, Paper, “Using hitherto-unexplored data, this paper provides a first look into pension funds’ allocations to alternative asset classes around the world. On average, in the ten years following the financial crisis, allocations to private equity and real estate nearly doubled, representing about 20% of assets under management in 2017 for pensions in many of the largest economies. Our sample indicates a $1.8 trillion shift to alternatives between 2008 and 2017. This phenomenon equally affected public and private pension funds, as well as funds of all sizes. This shift does not appear to be a consequence of mechanical factors such as increase in drawn capital or expected returns, but rather reflects a proactive portfolio allocation response to perceived investment opportunities. The extent of the shift to Alts is more pronounced for nations with lower long-term interest rate environment.Link

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Some Facts of High-Tech Patenting

Some Facts of High-Tech Patenting. Josh Lerner, July 2018, Paper, “Patenting in software, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence has grown rapidly in recent years. Such patents are acquired primarily by large US technology firms such as IBM, Microsoft, Google, and HP, as well as by Japanese multinationals such as Sony, Canon, and Fujitsu. Chinese patenting in the US is small but growing rapidly, and world-leading for drone technology. Patenting in machine learning has seen exponential growth since 2010, although patenting in neural networks saw a strong burst of activity in the 1990s that has only recently been surpassed.Link

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Private Equity, Jobs, and Productivity: Reply to Ayash and Rastad

Private Equity, Jobs, and Productivity: Reply to Ayash and Rastad. Josh Lerner, January 28, 2018, Paper, “Ayash and Rastad (2017) express several concerns about our 2014 analysis of private equitybuyouts. We welcome their interest in our work but think their criticisms are off the mark.Some of their claimsreflect a misunderstanding of the Census Bureau’s Longitudinal Business Database (LBD) and its underlying data inputs. Because the LBD has emerged as a major laboratory for empirical studies in economics and finance, we use this opportunity to reiterate and clarify some of its important features. In a similar spirit, we elaborate on steps taken to develop our large sample of private equity buyouts.Link

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Innovation Policy and the Economy

Innovation Policy and the Economy (Volume 18). Josh Lerner, 2018, Book, “This volume is the eighteenth annual volume of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Innovation Policy and the Economy (IPE) group. The IPE group provides an accessible forum to bring the work of leading academic researchers to an audience of policymakers and those interested in the interaction between…Link

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An Empirical Analysis of Investment Return Dispersion in Emerging Market Private Equity

An Empirical Analysis of Investment Return Dispersion in Emerging Market Private Equity. Josh Lerner, Fall 2017, Paper, “The authors use transaction-level data to compare the dispersion of private equity (PE) returns in emerging markets (EMs) to the same in developed markets (DMs). They regress within-market absolute deviation from the mean on an EM indicator and controls. They find evidence suggesting that the distribution of transaction-level TVPI has lower variance within EMs than within DMs, although with some caveats. The results suggest opportunities for further research exploring the relative riskiness of EM PE.Link

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Venture Capital Data: Opportunities and Challenges

Venture Capital Data: Opportunities and Challenges. Josh Lerner, 2017, Book Chapter, “Start-ups and other entrepreneurial ventures make a significant contribution to the US economy, particularly in the tech sector, where they comprise some of the largest and most influential companies. Yet for every high-profile, high-growth company like Apple, Facebook, Microsoft, and Google, many more fail. This enormous heterogeneity poses conceptual and measurement challenges for economists concerned with understanding their precise impact on economic growth.Link

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Private Equity and Financial Fragility during the Crisis

Private Equity and Financial Fragility during the Crisis. Josh Lerner, 2017, Paper, “Does private equity increase financial fragility during economic crises? To investigate this issue, we examine the financial decisions and performance of private equity-backed companies in the United Kingdom during the 2008 financial crisis. We find that PE-backed companies experienced a smaller decline in investment, relative to a carefully selected control group. PE-backed companies also experienced a larger increase in debt and equity issuances, while overall leverage remained unchanged. The effects are particularly strong for companies that were more likely to be financially constrained and those where private equity sponsors were more likely to have resources to help the portfolio company. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that PE sponsors relax financing constraints during a sudden tightening of credit markets and inconsistent with the hypothesis that private equity increase financial fragility during periods of financial turmoil.Link

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Private Equity and Industry Performance

Private Equity and Industry Performance. Josh Lerner, March 2017, Paper, “The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its potential impact on the economy more generally. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. Industries where PE funds have invested in the past five years have grown more quickly in terms of productivity and employment. There are few significant differences between industries with limited and high private equity activity. It is hard to find support for claims that economic activity in industries with private equity backing is more exposed to aggregate shocks. The results using lagged private equity investments suggest that the results are not driven by reverse causality. These patterns are not driven solely by common law nations such as the United Kingdom and United States, but also hold in Continental Europe.Link

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