Found 316 article(s) for author 'Jobs and Unemployment'

Harvard Business School Broadcast (Podcast)

Harvard Business School Broadcast (Podcast). Jan Rivkin, George Serafeim, William Kerr, June 20, 2019, Audio, “Bloomberg Businessweek Editor Joel Weber talks about Businessweek Best B-Schools rankings. Scott Sperling, Co-President at Thomas Lee Partners, explains why companies are taking longer to go public. Sal Khan, Founder of Khan Academy, talks about launching a partnership with NWEA. John Connaughton, Co-Managing Partner at Bain Capital, discusses opportunities in private equity investing. Jan Rivkin, Senior Associate Dean at Harvard Business School, talks about the HBS MBA program. George Serafeim, Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, shares his thoughts on ESG and impact investing. Kelley Morrell, Head of Tactical Opportunities at Blackstone, talks opportunities beyond traditional private equity. Bill Kerr, Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, discusses managing the future of work. Jonathan Nelson, Founder and CEO at Providence Equity, talks about investing in live events and the value of content. Hosts: Carol Massar and Jason Kelly. Producer: Paul Brennan.Link

 

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Do Some Countries Discriminate More than Others? Evidence from 97 Field Experiments of Racial Discrimination in Hiring

Do Some Countries Discriminate More than Others? Evidence from 97 Field Experiments of Racial Discrimination in Hiring. Devah Pager, June 17, 2019, Paper, “Comparing levels of discrimination across countries can provide a window into large-scale social and political factors often described as the root of discrimination. Because of difficulties in measurement, however, little is established about variation in hiring discrimination across countries. We address this gap through a formal meta-analysis of 97 field experiments of discrimination incorporating more than 200,000 job applications in nine countries in Europe and North America. We find significant discrimination against nonwhite natives in all countries in our analysis; discrimination against white immigrants is present but low. However, discrimination rates vary strongly by country: In high-discrimination countries, white natives receive nearly twice the callbacks of nonwhites; in low-discrimination countries, white natives receive about 25 percent more. France has the highest discrimination rates, followed by Sweden. We find smaller differences among Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, the United States, and Germany. These findings challenge several conventional macro-level theories of discrimination.Link

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The Wage Penalty to Undocumented Immigration

The Wage Penalty to Undocumented Immigration. George Borjas, May 2019, Paper, “This paper examines the determinants of the wage penalty experienced by undocumented workers, defined as the wage gap between observationally equivalent legal and undocumented immigrants. Using recently developed methods that impute undocumented status for foreign-born persons sampled in microdata surveys, the study documents a number of empirical findings. Although the unadjusted gap in the log hourly wage between the average undocumented and legal immigrant is very large (over 35 percent), almost all of this gap disappears once the calculation adjusts for differences in observable socioeconomic characteristics. The wage penalty to undocumented immigration for men was only about 4 percent in 2016.Link

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Contagious Political Concerns: How Unemployment Information Passed Between Weak Ties Influences Danish Voters

Contagious Political Concerns: How Unemployment Information Passed Between Weak Ties Influences Danish Voters. James Alt, Horacio Larreguy, May  2019, Paper, “While social pressure between close network ties is widely believed to influence voters, evidence that information passed between weak ties affects beliefs, policy preferences, and behavior is limited. We investigate such information diffusion by examining whether weak ties relay information about unemployment shocks in Denmark. We link surveys with rich population-level administrative data to overcome several difficulties of identifying causal effects. Mapping each respondent’s familial, vocational, and educational ties, we find that unemployment shocks afflicting second-degree weak ties—individuals that voters interact with indirectly—increase a voter’s self-assessed risk of becoming unemployed, perception of the national unemployment rate, support for unemployment insurance, and voting for left-wing political parties. Voters update about national aggregates from all shocks equally, whereas subjective perceptions and preferences respond primarily to unemployment shocks afflicting second-degree weak ties in similar industries. This implies that political preferences driven by information transmitted through weak ties principally reflect individual insurance—rather than sociotropic—motives.Link

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Immigration and Economic Growth

Immigration and Economic Growth. George Borjas, May 2019, Paper, “Immigration is sometimes claimed to be a key contributor to economic growth. Few academic studies, however, examine the direct link between immigration and growth. And the evidence on the outcomes that the literature does examine (such as the impact on wages or government receipts and expenditures) is far too mixed to allow unequivocal inferences. This paper surveys what we know about the relationship between immigration and growth. The canonical Solow model implies that a one-time supply shock will not have any impact on steady-state per-capita income, while a continuous supply shock will permanently reduce per-capita income. The observed relationship between immigration and growth obviously depends on many variables, including the skill composition of immigrants, the rate of assimilation, the distributional labor market consequences, the size of the immigration surplus, the potential human capital externalities, and the long-term fiscal impact. Despite the methodological disagreements about how to measure all of these effects, there is a consensus on one important point: Immigration has a more beneficial impact on growth when the immigrant flow is composed of high-skill workers.Link

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Unemployment Insurance and Macroeconomic Stabilization

Unemployment Insurance and Macroeconomic Stabilization. Gabriel Chodorow-Reich, 2019, Paper, “Unemployment insurance (UI) provides an important cushion for workers who lose their jobs. In addition, UI may act as a macroeconomic stabilizer during recessions. This chapter examines UI’s macroeconomic stabilization role, considering both the regular UI program which provides benefits to short-term unemployed workers as well as automatic and emergency extensions of benefits that cover long-term unemployed workers. We make a number of analytic points concerning the macroeconomic stabilization role of UI. First, recipiency rates in the regular UI program are quite low. Second, the automatic component of benefit extensions, Extended Benefits (EB), has played almost no role historically in providing timely, countercyclical stimulus while emergency programs are subject to implementation lags. Additionally, except during an exceptionally high and sustained period of unemployment, large UI extensions have limited scope to act as macroeconomic stabilizers even if they were made automatic because relatively few individuals reach long-term unemployment.Link

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An Industrial Policy for Good Jobs

An Industrial Policy for Good Jobs. Dani Rodrik, May 8, 2019, “So-called productive dualism is driving many contemporary ills in developed and developing countries alike: rising inequality and exclusion, loss of trust in governing elites, and growing electoral support for authoritarian populists. But much of the policy discussion today focuses on solutions that miss the true source of the problem.Link

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The Power of Workplace Rewards: Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Why Reward Satisfaction Matters for Workers Around the World

The Power of Workplace Rewards: Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Why Reward Satisfaction Matters for Workers Around the World. Ashley Whillans, April 17, 2019, Paper, “How can workplace rewards promote employee well-being and engagement? To answer these questions, we utilized self-determination theory to examine whether reward satisfaction predicted employee well-being, job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and affective commitment, as well as valuable organizational outcomes, such as workplace contribution and loyalty. Specifically, we investigated the role of three universal psychological needs—autonomy, competence and relatedness—in explaining whether and why reward satisfaction matters for employees’ well-being. We tested our model in a large, cross-sectional study with full-time employees working for multinational corporations in six main world regions: Asia, Europe, India, Latin America, North America and Oceania (N = 5,852). Consistent with our theorizing, we found cross-cultural evidence that reward satisfaction promoted greater employee functioning through psychological need satisfaction, contributing to better organizational outcomes. Critically, our results were consistent regardless of geographic location. As such, this study provides some of the strongest evidence to date for the power of understanding psychological mechanisms in the workplace: Regardless of the actual rewards that employees received, how workplace rewards made employees feel significantly predicted their optimal functioning.Link

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The Plight of the Graying Tech Worker

The Plight of the Graying Tech Worker. William Kerr, April 2019, Paper, “High-skilled immigration is dramatically transforming the tech sector in the United States. 1 In 1975, immigrants accounted for one in 12 inventors in America. Today it’s one in 3.5. This surge is due to immigrant concentration in science and engineering fields, and factors that make the United States attractive, such as access to the latest technologies and high pay levels. The impact has been most evident in advanced technology sectors in areas such as Boston and Silicon Valley, but non-tech companies including JPMorgan.Link

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