Found 253 article(s) for author 'Jobs and Unemployment'

Productivity and Pay: Is the Link Broken?

Productivity and Pay: Is the Link Broken? Lawrence Summers, June 2018, Paper, “Since 1973 median compensation in the United States has diverged starkly from average labor productivity. Since 2000, average compensation has also begun to diverge from labor productivity. These divergences lead to the question: Holding all else equal, to what extent does productivity growth translate into compensation growth for typical American workers? We investigate this, regressing median, average, and  production/nonsupervisory compensation growth on productivity growth in various specifications. We find substantial evidence of linkage between productivity and compensation…Link

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Including the Excluded: Supporting Informal Workers for More Equal and Productive Cities in the Global South

Including the Excluded: Supporting Informal Workers for More Equal and Productive Cities in the Global South. Martha Chen, May 2018, Paper, “The informal economy accounts for 50 to 80 percent of urban
employment in cities across the global South. Informal employment comprises over three-quarters of urban employment in Africa, over half of urban employment in Asia and the Pacific, and just under half of urban employment in Latin America and the Caribbean.Link

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Pension Policy and the Financial System

Pension Policy and the Financial System. David Scharfstein, May 2018, Paper, “This paper examines the effect of pension policy on the structure of financial systems around the world. In particular, I explore the hypothesis that policies that promote pension savings also promote the development of capital markets. I present a model that endogenizes the extent to which savings are intermediated through banks or capital markets, and derive implications for corporate finance, household finance, banking, and the size of the financial sector. I then present a number of facts that are broadly consistent with the theory and examine a variety of alternative explanations of my findings.Link

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Job Vacancies and Immigration: Evidence from Pre- and Post-Mariel Miami

Job Vacancies and Immigration: Evidence from Pre- and Post-Mariel Miami. George Borjas, May 2018, Paper, “How does immigration affect labor market opportunities in a receiving country? This paper contributes to the voluminous literature by reporting findings from a new (but very old) data set. Beginning in 1951, the Conference Board constructed a monthly job vacancy index by counting the number of help-wanted ads published in local newspapers in 51 metropolitan areas. We use the Help-Wanted Index (HWI) to document how immigration changes the number of job vacancies in the affected labor markets. Our analysis begins by revisiting the Mariel episode.Link

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Health, Employment, and Disability: Implications from the Undocumented Population

Health, Employment, and Disability: Implications from the Undocumented Population. George Borjas, April 2018, Paper, “Disability benefit recipients in the United States have nearly doubled in the past two decades, growing substantially faster than the population. It is difficult to estimate how much of this increase is explained by changes in population health, as we often lack a valid counterfactual. We propose using undocumented immigrants as the counterfactual, as they cannot currently claim benefits. Using NHIS microdata, we estimate models of disability as a function of medical conditions for both the legal and undocumented populations.Link

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Immigrant Entrepreneurship in America: Evidence from the Survey of Business Owners 2007 & 2012

Immigrant Entrepreneurship in America: Evidence from the Survey of Business Owners 2007 & 2012. William Kerr, April 2018, Paper, “We study immigrant entrepreneurship and firm ownership in 2007 and 2012 using the Survey of Business Owners (SBO). The survival and growth of immigrant-owned businesses over time relative to native-founded companies is evaluated by linking the 2007 SBO to the Longitudinal Business Database (LBD). We quantify the dependency of the United States as a whole, as well as individual states, on the contributions of immigrant entrepreneurs in terms of firm formation and job creation. We describe differences in the types of businesses started by immigrants and the quality of jobs created by their firms.Link

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A debt crisis is coming. But don’t blame entitlements

A debt crisis is coming. But don’t blame entitlements. Jason Furman, April 6, 2018, Opinion, “Martin Neil Baily, Jason Furman, Alan B. Krueger, Laura D’Andrea Tyson and Janet L. Yellen are all former chairs of the White House Council of Economic Advisers. The U.S. unemployment rate is down to 4.1 percent, and economic growth could well increase in 2018. Consumer and business confidence is high. What could go wrong?Link

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This is how companies can close the gender pay gap

This is how companies can close the gender pay gap. Iris Bohnet, April 1, 2018, Paper, “Now that mandatory reporting has revealed that three out of four British public entities and companies pay their male staff more than their female staff, the next question is what employers should do about it. Most organisations want to do something about their gender pay gaps, which in many cases stem from a dearth of women in higher-paying jobs — but many still focus on the wrong actions. Diversity training courses and their newer incarnation of unconscious bias training remain a popular tool, even though there is little evidence that they work. While they can raise awareness, studies show they do little to help change behaviour.Link

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Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective

Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, March 2018, Paper, “We study the sources of racial and ethnic disparities in income using de-identified longitudinal data covering nearly the entire U.S. population from 1989-2015. We document three sets of results. First, the intergenerational persistence of disparities varies substantially across racial groups. For example, Hispanic Americans are moving up significantly in the income distribution across generations because they have relatively high rates of intergenerational income mobility. In contrast, black Americans have substantially lower rates of upward mobility and higher rates of downward mobility than whites, leading to large income disparities that persist across generations.Link

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