Found 24 article(s) for author 'Jeffery Friedman'

Jeffry Frieden on Globalization, the Rise of Populism, and the Future of Democracy

Jeffry Frieden on Globalization, the Rise of Populism, and the Future of Democracy January 2020. GrowthPolicy’s Devjani Roy interview Jeffry Frieden, Chair of the Department of Government at Harvard and Stanfield Professor of International Peace, on globalization, the rise of populism, and the future of democracy. | Click here for more interviews like this one. […]

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Compensation, Austerity, and Populism

Compensation, Austerity, and Populism. Jeffry Frieden, December 6, 2019, Paper, “The existence of comprehensive social policies to compensate those who might be harmed by integration is widely seen as an important precondition for public support for economic and political integration in western Europe. However, many western European countries reduced spending on income maintenance after 1990. In countries hard hit by the sovereign debt crisis, there have also been significant cuts to social services. We evaluate the impact of levels of social spending on public support for populist parties. We also evaluate the impact of austerity measures on support for such parties. We examine a panel of 187 elections from 1990-2017 and analyze pooled cross-sectional data from eight waves of the European Social Survey. We find evidence that populist parties fare worse where countries spend more on social support, and where spending has not been reduced from historical levels. On the other hand, where countries spend less on income maintenance, and/or have decreased spending from earlier levels, populist vote shares are consistently higher, and the likelihood of supporting populist parties greater. This relationship holds when controlling for a range of individual and macroeconomic factors, including occupational and educational characteristics, unemployment, economic growth, and immigration rates. The growing strength of populist political parties is rooted in long-term economic and cultural changes, but appropriate social policies may moderate their appeal.Link

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Populism in Place: The Economic Geography of the Globalization Backla

Populism in Place: The Economic Geography of the Globalization Backlash. Jeffry Frieden, September 2019, Paper, “A populist backlash to globalization has ushered in nationalist governments and challenged core features of the liberal international order (LIO). While startling in scope and urgency, the populist wave has been developing in declining regions of wealthy countries for some time. Trade, offshoring, and automation have steadily reduced the jobs and wages of industrial workers since at least the 1970s. The decline in manufacturing employment initiated the deterioration of social and economic conditions in affected communities, exacerbating inequalities between depressed rural areas and small cities and towns, on the one hand, and thriving cities, on the other. The global financial crisis of 2008 catalyzed these divisions as communities already in decline suffered deeper and longer economic downturns than metropolitan areas where superstar knowledge, technology, and service-oriented firms agglomerate. We document many of these trends across the US and Europe, and demonstrate that populist support is strongest in communities that experienced long-term economic and social decline. Institutional differences in labor markets and electoral rules across developed democracies may explain some of the variation in populists’ electoral success. Renewed support for LIO may require a rejuvenation of distressed communities and an abatement of the stark regional inequalities.Link

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Analyzing Inter-State Negotiations in the Eurozone Crisis and Beyond

Analyzing Inter-State Negotiations in the Eurozone Crisis and Beyond. Jeffry Frieden, October 4, 2018, Paper, “The analysis of relations among the member states of the European Union requires a clear understanding of many aspects of these complex interactions. This conclusion to the special issue highlights the principal analytical issues raised by the study of the Eurozone crisis, in the light of existing theory and informed by the empirical analyses assembled by this project. Analysis starts with an estimate of the «national preferences» of the governments involved, based on their domestic socioeconomic and political conditions and institutions.Link

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U.S. tariffs boost trade tensions and protectionist theory

U.S. tariffs boost trade tensions and protectionist theory. Jeffry Frieden, June 14, 2018, Audio, “In the potential tariff war between China and the United States, each state is choosing to protect different sectors. Which is right? And is there a way for a country to engage in “good” protectionism for its own interests? First off, economists in general agree that tariffs should be avoided because they bring costly trade-offs. If a country taxes imported sneakers, for instance, it helps domestic shoemakers but deprives shoe buyers of the best, low-price kicks.Link

 

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Understanding the Political Economy of the Eurozone Crisis

Understanding the Political Economy of the Eurozone Crisis. Jeffry Frieden, 2017, Paper, “The Eurozone crisis constitutes a grave challenge to European integration. This article presents an overview of the causes of the crisis and analyzes why it has been so difficult to resolve. We focus on how responses to the crisis were shaped by distributive conflicts both among and within countries. On the international level, debtor and creditor countries have fought over the distribution of responsibility for the accumulated debt; countries with current account surpluses and deficits have fought over who should implement the policies necessary to reduce the current account imbalances. Within countries, interest groups have fought to shift the costs of crisis resolution away from themselves.Link

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Currency Politics in the Developing World

Currency Politics in the Developing World. Jeffry Frieden, Spring 2017, Paper, “The exchange rate is often said to be the most important price in any economy, for it affects all other prices. Americans are not used to thinking in these terms, in part because the US economy is relatively closed, and in part because the dollar is the world’s principal reserve currency. Nonetheless, a country’s exchange rate has a powerful impact on its economic activity, and this is especially true for developing countries. Because currency policy structures a country’s economic relations with the rest of the world, it can be crucial in determining a poor country’s developmental prospects.Link

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Understanding the Political Economy of the Eurozone Crisis: A Political Scientist’s Guide

Understanding the political economy of the Eurozone crisis: A Political Scientist’s Guide. Jeffry Frieden, 2017, Paper, “The Eurozone crisis constitutes a grave challenge to European integration. This essay presents an overview of the causes of the crisis, and analyzes why has it been so difficult to resolve. It focuses on how responses to the crisis were shaped by distributive conflicts both among and within countries. On the international level, debtor and creditor countries have fought over the distribution of responsibility for the accumulated debt; countries with current account surpluses and deficits have fought over who should implement the policies necessary to reduce the current account imbalances.Link

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The Political Economy of the Euro Crisis

The Political Economy of the Euro Crisis. Jeffry Frieden, 2016, Paper. “The euro crisis has developed into the most serious economic and political crisis in the history of the European Union (EU). By 2016, nine years after the outbreak of the global financial crisis in 2007, economic activity in the EU and the Eurozone was still below its precrisis level. At this point, the joint effects of the global financial crisis and the euro crisis have caused more lasting economic damage in Europe than the Great Depression of the 1930s (Crafts, 2013). The political consequences have also been severe. Conflict among EU member states has threatened the progress of European integration, while polarization and unrest have unsettled domestic politics in a host of European countries.Link

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The Governance of International Finance

The Governance of International Finance. Jeffry Frieden, 2016, Paper. “International finance is at the cutting edge of contemporary international economic integration. Today’s global financial markets are of enormous size and can move huge quantities of money around the world with extraordinary speed and massive effect. Their impact was demonstrated with a vengeance during the Great Financial Crisis (GFC) that began at the end of 2007, during which financial markets transmitted economic impulses – many of them highly damaging – from country to country in a matter of days or weeks…Link

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