Found 33 article(s) for author 'Investment'

Investment Incentives in Near-Optimal Mechanisms

Investment Incentives in Near-Optimal Mechanisms. Scott Duke Kominers, February 25, 2020, Paper, “In a Vickrey auction, if one bidder has an option to invest to increase his value, the combined mechanism including investments is still fully optimal. In contrast, for any β < 1, we find that there exist monotone allocation rules that guarantee a fraction β of the allocative optimum in the worst case but such that the associated mechanism with investments by one bidder can lead to arbitrarily small fractions of the full optimum being achieved. We show that if a monotone allocation rule satisfies a new property called ARNIE and guarantees a fraction β of the allocative optimum, then in the equilibrium of the threshold auction game with investments, at least a fraction β of the full optimum is achieved. We also establish generalizations and a partial converse, and show that some well-known approximation algorithms satisfy the ARNIE property.Link

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Advance Market Commitments: Insights from Theory and Experience

Advance Market Commitments: Insights from Theory and Experience. Michael Kremer, February 9, 2020, Paper, “Ten years ago, donors committed $1.5 billion to a pilot Advance Market Commitment (AMC) to help purchase pneumococcal vaccine for low-income countries. The AMC aimed to encourage the development of such vaccines, ensure distribution to children in low-income countries, and pilot the AMC mechanism for possible future use. Three vaccines have been developed and more than 150 million children immunized, saving an estimated 700,000 lives. This paper reviews the economic logic behind AMCs, the experience with the pilot, and key issues for future AMCs.Link

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Why Backstage Capital Invests in “Underestimated” Entrepreneurs

Why Backstage Capital Invests in “Underestimated” Entrepreneurs. Laura Huang, February 4, 2020, Audio, “Harvard Business School professor Laura Huang, whose new book “Edge” explores methods for turning adversity into professional advantage, is joined by Venture Capitalist Arlan Hamilton to discuss her strategy of backing entrepreneurs who have been ignored because of stereotypes, biases, and preconceptions. This episode is based off Huang and Sarah Mehta’s case, “Arlan Hamilton and Backstage Capital.”Link

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Coordination Frictions in Venture Capital Syndicates

Coordination Frictions in Venture Capital Syndicates. Ramana Nanda, Matthew Rhodes-Kropf, 2019, Book Chapter, “A clear implication of these potential frictions is that entrepreneurs need to be careful about how to select and build the syndicate of VC investors that back their firm … 18–037). Harvard Business School…Link

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Four Things No One Will Tell You About ESG Data

Four Things No One Will Tell You About ESG Data. George Serafeim, July 2, 2019, Paper, “As the ESG finance field and the use of ESG data in investment decision‐making continue to grow, the authors seek to shed light on several important aspects of ESG measurement and data. This article is intended to provide a useful guide for the rapidly rising number of people entering the field. The authors focus on the following…Link

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Real Credit Cycles

Real Credit Cycles. Andrei Shleifer, July 2019, Paper, “Recent empirical work has revived the Minsky hypothesis of boom-bust credit cycles driven by fluctuations in investor optimism. To quantitatively assess this hypothesis, we incorporate diagnostic expectations into an otherwise standard business cycle model with heterogeneous firms and risky debt. Diagnostic expectations are a psychologically founded, forward-looking model of belief formation that captures over-reaction to news. We calibrate the diagnosticity parameter using micro data on the forecast errors of managers of listed firms in the US. The model generates countercyclical credit spreads and default rates, while the rational expectations version generates the opposite pattern. Diagnostic expectations also offer a good fit of three patterns that have been empirically documented: systematic reversals of credit spreads, systematic reversals of aggregate investment, and predictability of future bond returns. Crucially, diagnostic expectations also generate a strong fragility or sensitivity to small bad news after steady expansions. The rational expectations version of the model can account for the first pattern but not the others. Diagnostic expectations offer a parsimonious account of major credit cycles facts, underscoring the promise of realistic expectation formation for applied business cycle modeling.” Link

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What Marco Rubio gets right — and wrong — about the decline of American investment

What Marco Rubio gets right — and wrong — about the decline of American investment. Lawrence Summers, May 31, 2019, Opinion, “Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.) recently released a thoughtful report highlighting a substantial issue in the American economy: the steady decline of American private investment. The trend, Rubio contends, is the result of shareholder capitalism and corporate short-termism. In other words, business decision making has shifted toward “delivering returns quickly and predictably to investors, rather than building long-term capabilities through investment and production,” as he writes in his analysis.Link

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Private Equity: A Casebook

Private Equity: A Casebook. Paul Gompers, Victoria Ivashina, Richard Ruback, 2019, Book, “’Private Equity’ is an advanced applied corporate finance book with a mixture of chapters devoted to exploring a range of topics from a private equity investor’s perspective. The goal is to understand why and which practices are likely to deliver sustained profitability in the future. The book is a collection of cases based on actual investment decisions at different stages for process tackled by experienced industry professionals. The majority of the chapters deal with growth equity and buyout investments. However, a range of size targets and investments in different geographical markets are covered as well. These markets include several developed economies and emerging markets like China, Russia, Turkey, Egypt and Argentina. This compilation of cases is rich in institutional details, information about different markets, and segments of the industry as well as different players and their investment practices – it is a unique insight into the key alternative asset class.Link

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Communicating Resource Scarcity

Communicating Resource Scarcity. Ashley Whillans, Michael Norton, 2019, Paper, “The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships require investments of both money and time—resources that are often limited in supply, but in great demand. Indeed, consumers are regularly asked to dedicate their money and time to social engagements, and need to manage these resources efficiently. Therefore, consumers often choose to cite insufficient time or money as an excuse for rejecting social invitations. But how does using the excuse of financial versus time scarcity influence interpersonal relationships? Across eight experiments, we demonstrate that using financial scarcity as an excuse (e.g., “I don’t have money”) increases perceptions of interpersonal closeness and helping behavior compared to using time scarcity as an excuse (e.g., “I don’t have time”). This effect is explained by the fact that time is perceived as a more personally controllable resource than money, resulting in consumers who cite financial (vs. temporal) constraints as being perceived as more trustworthy.Link

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Financing the Response to Climate Change: The Pricing and Ownership of U.S. Green Bonds

Financing the Response to Climate Change: The Pricing and Ownership of U.S. Green Bonds. Malcolm Baker, George Serafeim, April 27, 2018, Paper, “Estimates suggest that mitigating and adapting to climate change will cost trillions of dollars. We study the developing market for green bonds, which are bonds whose proceeds are used for environmentally sensitive purposes. After an overview of the U.S. corporate and municipal green bonds market, we study pricing and ownership patterns of municipal green bonds using a framework that incorporates assets with nonpecuniary
sources of utility. The results support the prediction that green bonds are issued at a premium to otherwise similar ordinary bonds—that is, with lower yields—on an after-tax basis.Link

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