Found 418 article(s) for author 'Innovation'

Association of the Meaningful Use Electronic Health Record Incentive Program With Health Information Technology Venture Capital Funding

Association of the Meaningful Use Electronic Health Record Incentive Program With Health Information Technology Venture Capital Funding. Ariel Dora Stern, March 23, 2020, Paper, “Although the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act has accelerated electronic health record (EHR) adoption since its passage, clinician satisfaction with EHRs remains low, and the association of HITECH with health care information technology (IT) entrepreneurship has remained largely unstudied.Link

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Electricity Market Design and Green Energy

Electricity Market Design and Green Energy. William Hogan, March 13, 2020, Paper, “An efficient short-run electricity market determines a market clearing price based on conditions of supply and demand balanced in an economic dispatch. Everyone pays or is paid the same price. The thought experiment of a no-carbon/zero-variable-cost, green energy supply reveals that the basic efficiency principles still apply. The same principles apply in an electric network.Link

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Harvard’s Ken Rogoff: Coronavirus Shows We Need Both Healthcare Safety Net and Private Innovation

Harvard’s Ken Rogoff: Coronavirus Shows We Need Both Healthcare Safety Net and Private Innovation. Kenneth Rogoff, March 8, 2020, Audio, “Pollak asked what economic lessons can be learned from the ongoing coronavirus spread. “There is certainly a lesson for having a safety net so that so that if you’re facing a pandemic, you could treat everyone and really have a framework [so] people aren’t afraid to come in and you can treat everyone,” replied Rogoff. Government healthcare policy must be balanced with free-market forces, added Rogoff. “The whole world depends on the United States for the innovation in drugs and health care, and there’s a very good chance that the vaccine’s going to come from here because we have this very developed private sector, and the question is how to have a system that has both.”Link

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Technology for All

Technology for All. Dani Rodrik, March 6, 2020, Opinion, “Technological change does not follow its own direction, but rather is shaped by moral frames, incentives, and power. If we think more about how innovation can be directed to serve society, we can afford to worry less about how we should adjust to it.Link

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The State of Access in Cities: Theory and Practice

The State of Access in Cities: Theory and Practice. Jorrit de Jong, March 3, 2020, Book Chapter, “This chapter presents a framework to analyze access to rights and services in urban settings. Following De Jong and Rizvi’s (2008) definition of access as the match between societal commitment and institutional capacity to deliver rights and services and people’s capacity to benefit from those rights and services, the chapter examines the different dimensions that underpin access in urban settings. It argues that efforts to deal with the bureaucratic dysfunction that impedes access should be grounded in an approach that looks at context, system, agency and individual levels of analysis. Such conceptual approach highlights the adaptive nature of dealing with bureaucratic dysfunction to enlarge access to urban benefits, putting an emphasis on the role of leadership in innovating to make it possible. The chapter tests these propositions by examining examples of recent innovations to manage bureaucratic dysfunction and associated lack of access from cities across the world. Some lessons are drawn from the analysis: (i) leaders who can articulate the public value proposition, can enable the necessary legitimacy and can build operational capacity are a fundamental pillar of any effort, (ii) focusing in an agency or a narrow set of agencies may leave key stakeholders out, rendering efforts to increase access unsustainable, and (iii) engaging frontline workers has to be a central part of any effort, but it cannot fail to act at the context and societal level, so that the deeper forces inhibiting access to urban benefits are deactivated in the long term.Link

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Illuminating homes with LEDs in India: Rapid market creation towards low-carbon technology transition in a developing country

Illuminating homes with LEDs in India: Rapid market creation towards low-carbon technology transition in a developing country. Venkatesh Narayanamurti, 2020, Paper, “Near-term climate change mitigation calls for technological innovation and widespread implementation of appropriate technologies. This is salient in emerging economies, where impending socio-economic and infrastructural transitions hold immense potential for locking-in low-carbon development pathways. Yet, little is understood about how developing countries can scale appropriate technology transitions, given their often underdeveloped technological innovation capabilities and supporting infrastructures and finances. This paper examines a recent, rapid, and ongoing transition of India’s lighting market to light emitting diode (LED) technology, from a negligible market share to LEDs becoming the dominant lighting products within five years, despite the country’s otherwise limited visibility in the global solid-state lighting industry. Annual sales of LED bulbs grew more than 130 times to over 650 million bulbs between 2014–2018, with over 30 billion kWh of estimated annual energy savings. Focusing on this striking story of technology transition, this paper analyzes India’s LED uptake using semi-structured interviews and drawing on the technology innovation systems literature. The results show that the success of transition coexists with its share of shortfalls, and that there is an important tension between the lowering of upfront costs of low-carbon technologies and the efforts to enhance domestic technological capabilities. The paper discusses the results for the Indian LED case and emphasizes the importance of consistent strategic action taking into account all (and not limited) parts of the technology innovation system, while also providing insights on how mitigation technologies can be developed and deployed in developing countries.Link

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Immigration Policy Levers for US Innovation and Startups

Immigration Policy Levers for US Innovation and Startups. William Kerr, 2020, Book Chapter, “Immigrants account for about a quarter of US invention and entrepreneurship despite a policy environment that is not well suited for these purposes. This chapter reviews the US immigration policy environment that governs how skilled migrants move to America for employment-based purposes. We discuss points of strain in the current system and potential policy reforms that would likely increase the rate of innovation and startups due to immigrants in the country. Key areas include adjustments to the allocation of permanent residency visas, adjustments to the H-1B visa program, and the creation of an immigrant startup visa.Link

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Design in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

Design in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. Marco Iansiti, 2020, Paper, “Artificial Intelligence (AI) is affecting the scenario in which innovation takes place. What are the implications for our understanding of design? Is AI just another digital technology that, akin to many others, will not significantly question what we know about design? Or will it create transformations in design that our current frameworks cannot capture? To address these questions, we have investigated two pioneering cases at the frontier of AI, Netflix and AirBnB (complemented with analyses in Microsoft and Tesla), which offer a privileged window on the future evolution of design. We found that AI does not undermine the basic principles of Design Thinking (people-centered, abductive and iterative). Rather, it enables to overcome past limitations (in scale, scope and learning) of human intense design processes. In the context of AI factories solutions may even be more user-centered (to an extreme level of granularity, i.e. being designed for every single person), more creative, and continuously updated through learning iterations that span the entire life cycle of a product. Yet, we found that AI profoundly changes the practice of design. Problem solving tasks, traditionally carried on by designers, are now automated into learning loops that operate without limitations of volume and speed. These loops think in a radically different way than a designer: they address complex problems through very simple tasks, iterated exponentially. The article therefore proposes a new framework for understanding design practice in the age of AI. We also discuss the implications for design and innovation theory. Specifically, we observe that, as creative problem solving is significantly conducted by algorithms, human design increasingly becomes an activity of sense making, i.e. to understand which problems make sense to be addressed. This shift in focus calls for new theories and brings design closer to leadership, which is, inherently, an activity of sense making.Link

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Within Occupation Changes Dominate Changes in What Workers Do: A Shift-Share Decomposition, 2005-2015

Within Occupation Changes Dominate Changes in What Workers Do: A Shift-Share Decomposition, 2005-2015. Richard Freeman, January 2020, Paper, “Recent analyses of the potential effects of advanced technology on jobs has tended to focus on possible reductions in routine cognitive white-collar jobs due to computer algorithms and in blue-collar jobs due to robots and factory automation. This paper provides a different perspective on the possible future of work by: (1) measuring changes in job attributes/tasks from 2005 to 2015, straddling the boundary between the pre-AI and AI eras; and (2) decomposing those changes via a shift-share analysis into the changes that occurred within occupations and changes in the shares of employment between occupations with different characteristics. Our primary source of information on job characteristics over time is the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database developed by U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration. While prior research has used O*NET data cross-sectionally, we create a new panel dataset that allows us to analyze changes over time for 170 job characteristics from four O*NET questionnaires completed consistently by workers (job incumbents) since 2003. Per our title, we find that within-occupation changes dominate, raising doubts about the ability of projections based on expected changes in the occupational composition of employment to capture the likely future of work. Indeed, our data show only weak relationships between automatability, repetitiveness, and other job attributes and changes in occupational employment. The results suggest that analysts give greater attention to within-occupation impacts of technology in assessing the future of work.Link

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Reinventing Retail: The Novel Resurgence of Independent Bookstores

Reinventing Retail: The Novel Resurgence of Independent Bookstores. Ryan Raffaelli, January 20202, Paper, “This study examines how community-based brick-and-mortar retailers can achieve sustained market growth in the face of online and big box retail competition. The appearance of Amazon.com in 1995 led to a significant decline in the number of in- dependent bookstores in the United States, leading many analysts to predict the demise of the sector. However, between 2009 and 2018 independent bookstores proved to be far more resilient than expected. The American Booksellers Association (ABA) reported a 49% percent growth in the number of “indie” booksellers, from 1,651 in 2009 to 2,470 in 2018. This study identifies “3C’s” that contributed to the independent bookstore resurgence…Link

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