Found 357 article(s) for author 'Innovation'

From Immigrants to Robots: The Changing Locus of Substitutes for Workers

From Immigrants to Robots: The Changing Locus of Substitutes for Workers. George Borjas, Richard Freeman, January 2019, Paper, “Increased use of robots has roused concern about how robots and other new technologies change the world of work. Using numbers of robots shipped to primarily manufacturing industries as a supply shock to an industry labor market, we estimate that an additional robot reduces employment and wages in an industry by roughly as much as an additional 2 to 3 workers and by 3 to 4 workers in particular groups, which far exceed estimated effects of an additional immigrant on employment and wages. While the growth of robots in the 1996-2016 period of our data was too modest to be a major determinant of wages and employment, the estimated coefficients suggest that continued exponential growth of robots could disrupt job markets in the foreseeable future and thus merit attention from labor analysts.Link

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China’s Boldest Experiment

China’s Boldest Experiment. Dani Rodrik, December 11, 2018, Opinion, “The conventional wisdom among social scientists is that the demands of advanced economies and growing middle classes can be met only through greater political freedoms and competition. By doubling down on authoritarian single-party rule, China is now testing that proposition.Link

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Team Learning Capabilities: A Meso Model of Sustained Innovation and Superior Firm Performance

Team Learning Capabilities: A Meso Model of Sustained Innovation and Superior Firm Performance. Amy Edmondson, 2018, Paper, “This paper complements the manager-centered analysis of dynamic capabilities with a team-based approach focused on team learning. We argue that team learning capabilities intertwine with managerial cognitive capabilities to support the processes of sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring. We draw from the literature on team learning to develop four categories based on the orientation (exploration/exploitation) and locus (internal/external) of learning in teams: reflexive, experimental, contextual, and vicarious learning. We integrate these categories into the dynamic capabilities framework to show their particular relevance at different points along the sensing-seizing-reconfiguring pathway, and assess their potential impact on innovation and strategic change. The framework contributes by adding a meso lens to research on dynamic capabilities to help scholars better understand how learning that occurs in teams may support entrepreneurial managers in enacting their cognitive capabilities in service of sustained innovation and superior firm performance.Link

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Intertemporal Choice

Intertemporal Choice. David Laibson, December 2018, Paper, “Intertemporal tradeoffs play a key role in many personal decisions and policy questions. We describe models of intertemporal choice, identify empirical regularities in choice, and pose new questions for research. The focus for intertemporal choice research is no longer whether the exponential discounted utility model is empirically accurate, but, instead, what models best explain the robust behavioral deviations we observe. We introduce the term “present-focused preferences” to describe the large class of models that prioritize present flows of experienced utility. Present-focused preferences need not coincide with a preference for commitment or dynamically inconsistent preferences. Present-bias is a special case of present-focused preferences.Link

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The Ethnic Migrant Inventor Effect: Codification and Recombination of Knowledge Across Borders

The Ethnic Migrant Inventor Effect: Codification and Recombination of Knowledge Across Borders. Prithwiraj Choudhury, October 22, 2018, Paper, “Ethnic migrant inventors may differ from locals in terms of the knowledge they bring to host firms. Using a unique dataset of Chinese and Indian herbal patents filed in the United States, we find that an increase in the supply of first‐generation ethnic migrant inventors increases the rate of codification of herbal knowledge at U.S. assignees by 4.5 percent. Our identification comes from an exogenous shock to the quota of H1B visas and from a list of entities exempted from the shock. We also find that ethnic migrant inventors are more likely to engage in reuse of knowledge previously locked within the cultural context of their home regions, whereas knowledge recombination is more likely to be pursued by teams comprising inventors from other ethnic backgrounds.Link

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The workforce of pioneer plants: The role of worker mobility in the diffusion of industries

The workforce of pioneer plants: The role of worker mobility in the diffusion of industries. Ricardo Hausmann, October 2018, Paper, “Because many skills are tacit and specific to an industry, the diffusion of industries and the technologies they employ often requires that workers skilled in the use of these technologies relocate to the new region…Link

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Migration and Innovation: Evidence from Technology Take-offs

Migration and Innovation: Evidence from Technology Take-offs. Prithwiraj Choudhury, October 13, 2018, Paper, “We investigate the relationship between international migration flows and the dynamics of innovation in the migrants’ receiving and sending countries. We find that countries are 3.5% more likely to become significant producers of a technology for every twofold increase in the stock of immigrants (30,000 people, on average) from countries that excel in that same technology. Our results are much stronger for skilled migrants, and are mostly driven by international migration rather than by cross-border trade or investments. We use a migration gravity framework to instrument for migrant stocks, reducing possible endogeneity concerns. We interpret these results as tangible evidence of migrants facilitating the diffusion of knowledge across nations.Link

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Baystate Business: Investing, Leadership, Lawsuits

Baystate Business: Investing, Leadership, Lawsuits. Gautam Mukunda, September 26, 2018, Audio, “On the Wednesday, September 19 edition of Bloomberg Baystate Business we spoke with Bloomberg News reporter Alan Levin about the aftermath of the Merrimack Valley gas explosions. Bloomberg News cross assets reporter Sarah Ponczek talked about the Bloomberg Future of Investing event held earlier in the day in Boston. Gautam Mukunda of Harvard Business School talked about his research on business leaders as political leaders. Boston Business Journal law and money reporter Greg Ryan told us about the lawsuit filed by the former owners of Suffolk Downs against the company that used to be known as Wynn Resorts, which is building a billion dollar casino in Everett…Link


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