Found 20 article(s) for author 'Income'

Income Inequality Affects Donations Only for High-Income People Who Feel Financially Insecure and Distrust Others

Income Inequality Affects Donations Only for High-Income People Who Feel Financially Insecure and Distrust Others. Ashley Whillans, 2019, Paper, “There is a growing debate about whether high-income individuals are more or less generous when income inequality is high. We advance this ongoing conversation by analysing a large and comprehensive data set with approximately one million respondents from 140 countries. In this data set, higher-income individuals who live in countries with greater income inequality are less likely to donate money to charity and are more likely to volunteer than their lower-income counterparts. Higher-income individuals who feel financially insecure or show distrust of others are especially unlikely to donate money to charity under high income inequality. These moderators do not influence rates of volunteering. Together, these results advance the debate regarding whether and when inequality shapes prosocial behaviour.Link

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Creating Moves to Opportunity: Experimental Evidence on Barriers to Neighborhood Choice

Creating Moves to Opportunity: Experimental Evidence on Barriers to Neighborhood Choice. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, Lawrence Katz, August 2019, Paper, “Low-income families in the United States tend to live in neighborhoods that offer limited opportunities for upward income mobility. One potential explanation for this pattern is that families prefer such neighborhoods for other reasons, such as affordability or proximity to family and jobs. An alternative explanation is that they do not move to high-opportunity areas because of barriers that prevent them from making such moves. We test between these two explanations using a randomized controlled trial with housing voucher recipients in Seattle and King County. We provided services to reduce barriers to moving to high-upward-mobility neighborhoods: customized search assistance, landlord engagement, and short-term financial assistance. The intervention increased the fraction of families who moved to high-upward-mobility areas from 14% in the control group to 54% in the treatment group.Link

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To Serve the People: Income, Region and Citizen Attitudes towards Governance in China (2003–2016)

To Serve the People: Income, Region and Citizen Attitudes towards Governance in China (2003–2016). Edward Cunningham, Anthony Saich, April 11, 2019, Paper, “Through use of a unique, multi-year public opinion survey, this paper seeks to measure changes in self-reported governmental satisfaction among Chinese citizens between 2003 and 2016. Despite the persistence of vast socio-economic and regional inequalities, we find evidence that low-income citizens and residents living in China’s less-developed inland provinces have actually reported comparatively greater increases in satisfaction since 2003. These results, which we term the “income effect” and “region effect” respectively, are more pronounced at the county and township levels of government, which are most responsible for public service provision. Our findings also show that the satisfaction gap between privileged and more marginalized populations in China is beginning to close, in large part owing to efforts by the Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping administrations to rebalance the gains of economic growth and shift resources towards the populations most overlooked during China’s first few decades of reform.Link

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Birds of a Feather: Estimating the Value of Statistical Life from Dual-Earner Families

Birds of a Feather: Estimating the Value of Statistical Life from Dual-Earner Families. Joseph Aldy, March 2019, Paper, “Economists have long employed hedonic wage analysis to estimate income-fatality risk trade-offs, but some scholars have raised concerns about systematic measurement error and omitted variable bias in the empirical applications of this model. Recent studies have employed panel methods to remove time-invariant individual-specific characteristics that could induce bias in estimation. In an analogous manner, this paper proposes to exploit assortative matching on risk attitudes within married couples to control for worker characteristics that are unobserved to the econometrician. I develop and implement a modified hedonic wage estimator based on a within-coupled differenced wage equation for full-time working married couples with the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group over 1996-2002. The key assumption builds on the findings in the assortative matching literature that individuals often marry those who have common traits across many dimensions, including those that may influence worker wages and are correlated with observed occupational fatality risks.Link

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Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood

Falling Behind: The Role of Inter- and Intragenerational Processes in Widening Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps through Early and Middle Adulthood. Alexandra Killewald, July 13, 2018, Paper, “Whites’ wealth advantage compared to blacks and Hispanics is vast and increases with age. While prior research on wealth gaps focuses primarily on wealth levels, we adopt a life-course perspective that treats wealth as a cumulative outcome and examine wealth accumulation across individuals’ lives. We test to what extent intergenerational disadvantage and disparities in achieved characteristics explain accumulation disparities. We hypothesize that disparities in wealth determinants, like income and education, family and household characteristics, and homeownership and local context, increase through early and middle adulthood, widening wealth accumulation gaps.Link

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Good Credit and the Good Life: Credit Scores Predict Subjective Well-Being

Good Credit and the Good Life: Credit Scores Predict Subjective Well-Being. Ashley Whillans, 2018, Paper, “Can money buy happiness? To examine this question, research in economics, psychology, and sociology has focused almost exclusively on examining the associations between income,
spending or wealth and subjective well-being. Moving beyond this research, we provide the first empirical evidence that credit scores uniquely predict happiness. Across two samples, from the United Kingdom (N=615) and the United States (N=768), credit scores predicted life satisfaction even after controlling for a range of financial covariates, including income, spending, savings, debt, and home-ownership. Respondents with higher credit scores felt more optimistic about their future, promoting happiness.Link

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Redistribution Without a Median Voter: Models of Multidimensional Politics

Redistribution Without a Median Voter: Models of Multidimensional Politics. Torben Iversen, May 2018, Paper, “Most work on redistribution in democracies is anchored in long-standing unidimensional models, notably the seminal Meltzer-Richard-Romer model. When scholars venture outside the security of unidimensionality, many either abandon theoretical rigor or miss the full consequences of adding more dimensions (whether ideological or economic). There is now a substantial literature on redistributive politics in multidimensional policy spaces, but it tends to be very technical and frequently misinterpreted, if not ignored. This purpose of this article is to review this relatively new literature using simple graphical representations,Link

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Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective

Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, March 2018, Paper, “We study the sources of racial and ethnic disparities in income using de-identified longitudinal data covering nearly the entire U.S. population from 1989-2015. We document three sets of results. First, the intergenerational persistence of disparities varies substantially across racial groups. For example, Hispanic Americans are moving up significantly in the income distribution across generations because they have relatively high rates of intergenerational income mobility. In contrast, black Americans have substantially lower rates of upward mobility and higher rates of downward mobility than whites, leading to large income disparities that persist across generations.Link

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Directions for International Tax Reform:, Hearing Before the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance, Hearing on International Tax Reform

Directions for International Tax Reform:, Hearing Before the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance, Hearing on International Tax Reform. Stephen Shay, October 3, 2017, Paper, “Testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance Hearing on International Tax Reform, October 3, 2017. Objectives for Tax Reform. Tax reform should maintain or enhance our tax system’s current level of progressivity in distributing tax burdens and benefits. The most significant social welfare fact today is that the income of middle and lower income workers has stagnated in recent decades and a disproportionate share of income growth has accrued to those with highest incomes—the top 1%. While we have recovered from the recession and middle and lower income workers have made some gains, the disparity between high-income and middle- and lower-income has grown substantially and income mobility is more constrained than for prior generations. The taxation of cross-border income of U.S. MNCs should be analyzed under the same fairness standards that apply to any other income.Link

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The Social Implications of Sugar: Living Costs, Real Incomes and Inequality in Jamaica c1774

The Social Implications of Sugar: Living Costs, Real Incomes and Inequality in Jamaica c1774. Jeffery Williamson, October 2017, Paper, “This paper provides the first quantitative assessment of Jamaican standards of living and income inequality around 1774. To this purpose we compute welfare ratios for a range of occupations and build a social table. We find that the slave colony had extremely high living costs, which rose steeply during the American War of Independence, and low standards of living, particularly for its enslaved population. Our results also show that due to its extreme poverty surrounding extreme wealth Jamaica was the most unequal place in the pre-modern world. Furthermore, all of these characteristics applied to the free population alone.Link

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