Found 18 article(s) for author 'George Borjas'

The Wage Penalty to Undocumented Immigration

The Wage Penalty to Undocumented Immigration. George Borjas, May 2019, Paper, “This paper examines the determinants of the wage penalty experienced by undocumented workers, defined as the wage gap between observationally equivalent legal and undocumented immigrants. Using recently developed methods that impute undocumented status for foreign-born persons sampled in microdata surveys, the study documents a number of empirical findings. Although the unadjusted gap in the log hourly wage between the average undocumented and legal immigrant is very large (over 35 percent), almost all of this gap disappears once the calculation adjusts for differences in observable socioeconomic characteristics. The wage penalty to undocumented immigration for men was only about 4 percent in 2016.Link

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Immigration and Economic Growth

Immigration and Economic Growth. George Borjas, May 2019, Paper, “Immigration is sometimes claimed to be a key contributor to economic growth. Few academic studies, however, examine the direct link between immigration and growth. And the evidence on the outcomes that the literature does examine (such as the impact on wages or government receipts and expenditures) is far too mixed to allow unequivocal inferences. This paper surveys what we know about the relationship between immigration and growth. The canonical Solow model implies that a one-time supply shock will not have any impact on steady-state per-capita income, while a continuous supply shock will permanently reduce per-capita income. The observed relationship between immigration and growth obviously depends on many variables, including the skill composition of immigrants, the rate of assimilation, the distributional labor market consequences, the size of the immigration surplus, the potential human capital externalities, and the long-term fiscal impact. Despite the methodological disagreements about how to measure all of these effects, there is a consensus on one important point: Immigration has a more beneficial impact on growth when the immigrant flow is composed of high-skill workers.Link

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The Wage Impact of the Marielitos: The Role of Race

The Wage Impact of the Marielitos: The Role of Race. George Borjas, January 30, 2019, Paper, “The author’s 2017 reappraisal of the impact of the Mariel supply shock revealed that the wage of low-skill workers declined in post-Mariel Miami. Clemens and Hunt (2019) assert that a data quirk in the March CPS—specifically, a substantial increase in the black share of Miami’s low-skill workforce in the period—implies that those wage trends do not correctly measure the impact of the Marielitos. Because blacks earn less than whites earn, the increased black share would spuriously reduce the average low-skill wage in Miami. The author examines the sensitivity of the evidence to the change in the racial composition of the sample. The Clemens and Hunt assertion is demonstrably false. The timing of the post-Mariel decline in Miami’s wage does not coincide with the increase in the black share. And sensible adjustments for racial composition do not change the finding that Miami’s low-skill wage fell after 1980.Link

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From Immigrants to Robots: The Changing Locus of Substitutes for Workers

From Immigrants to Robots: The Changing Locus of Substitutes for Workers. George Borjas, Richard Freeman, January 2019, Paper, “Increased use of robots has roused concern about how robots and other new technologies change the world of work. Using numbers of robots shipped to primarily manufacturing industries as a supply shock to an industry labor market, we estimate that an additional robot reduces employment and wages in an industry by roughly as much as an additional 2 to 3 workers and by 3 to 4 workers in particular groups, which far exceed estimated effects of an additional immigrant on employment and wages. While the growth of robots in the 1996-2016 period of our data was too modest to be a major determinant of wages and employment, the estimated coefficients suggest that continued exponential growth of robots could disrupt job markets in the foreseeable future and thus merit attention from labor analysts.Link

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Job Vacancies and Immigration: Evidence from Pre- and Post-Mariel Miami

Job Vacancies and Immigration: Evidence from Pre- and Post-Mariel Miami. George Borjas, May 2018, Paper, “How does immigration affect labor market opportunities in a receiving country? This paper contributes to the voluminous literature by reporting findings from a new (but very old) data set. Beginning in 1951, the Conference Board constructed a monthly job vacancy index by counting the number of help-wanted ads published in local newspapers in 51 metropolitan areas. We use the Help-Wanted Index (HWI) to document how immigration changes the number of job vacancies in the affected labor markets. Our analysis begins by revisiting the Mariel episode.Link

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Health, Employment, and Disability: Implications from the Undocumented Population

Health, Employment, and Disability: Implications from the Undocumented Population. George Borjas, April 2018, Paper, “Disability benefit recipients in the United States have nearly doubled in the past two decades, growing substantially faster than the population. It is difficult to estimate how much of this increase is explained by changes in population health, as we often lack a valid counterfactual. We propose using undocumented immigrants as the counterfactual, as they cannot currently claim benefits. Using NHIS microdata, we estimate models of disability as a function of medical conditions for both the legal and undocumented populations.Link

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Lessons from Immigration Economics

Lessons from Immigration Economics. George Borjas, Winter 2018, Paper, “The article offers information on the things to be learnt from the immigration economics. Topics discussed include West Germany and European countries recruited and imported hundreds of guest workers from Turkey; book “Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World” by Paul Collier addresses question in development economics never directly worked on immigration issues in his academic work.; and researches ignoring the implication of the decisions potential immigrants.Link

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The Earnings of Undocumented Immigrants

The Earnings of Undocumented Immigrants. George Borjas, March 2017, Paper, “Over 11 million undocumented persons reside in the United States, and there has been a heated debate over the impact of legislative or executive efforts to regularize the status of this population. This paper examines the determinants of earnings for undocumented workers. Using newly developed methods that impute undocumented status for foreign-born persons sampled in microdata surveys, the study documents a number of findings. First, the age-earnings profile of undocumented workers lies far below that of legal immigrants and of native workers, and is almost perfectly flat during the prime working years.Link

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The Labour Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks

The Labour Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks. George Borjas, October 2016, Paper, “The continuing inflow of hundreds of thousands of refugees into many European countries has ignited much political controversy and raised questions that require a fuller understanding of the determinants and consequences of refugee supply shocks. This paper revisits four historical refugee shocks to document their labour market impact. Specifically, we examine: The influx of Marielitos into Miami in 1980; the influx of French repatriates and Algerian nationals into France at the end of the Algerian Independence War in 1962; the influx of Jewish e’migre’s into Israel after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s; and the exodus of refugees from the former Yugoslavia during the long series of Balkan wars between 1991 and 2001.Link

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The Labor Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks

The Labor Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks. George Borjas, September 2016, Paper, “The continuing inflow of hundreds of thousands of refugees into many European countries has ignited much political controversy and raised questions that require a fuller understanding of the determinants and consequences of refugee supply shocks. This paper revisits four historical refugee shocks to document their labor market impact. Specifically, we examine: The influx of Marielitos into Miami in 1980; the influx of French repatriates and Algerian nationals into France at the end of the Algerian Independence War in 1962; the influx of Jewish émigrés into Israel after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s; and the exodus of refugees from the former Yugoslavia during the long series of Balkan wars between 1991 and 2001.Link

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