Found 42 article(s) for author 'Gender'

The Dilemma of Gender Equality: How Labor Market Regulation Divides Women by Class

The Dilemma of Gender Equality: How Labor Market Regulation Divides Women by Class. Torben Iversen, 2019, Paper, “Women shoulder a heavier burden of family work than men in modern society, preventing them from matching male success in the external labor market. Limiting working hours is a plausible way to level the playing field by creating the possibility of less gendered roles for both sexes. But why then are heavily regulated European labor markets associated with a smaller share of women in top management positions compared with liberal market economies such as in the United States? We explain this puzzle with reference to the difficulty of ambitious women to signal their commitment to high-powered careers in regulated markets.Link

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Female Labor in Jordan: A Systematic Approach to the Exclusion Puzzle

Female Labor in Jordan: A Systematic Approach to the Exclusion Puzzle. Ricardo Hausmann, Tim O’Brien, Miguel Santos, October 2019, Paper, “Women in Jordan are excluded from labor market opportunities at among the highest rates in the world. Previous efforts to explain this outcome have focused on specific, isolated aspects of the problem and have not exploited available datasets to test across causal explanations. We develop a comprehensive framework to analyze the drivers of low female employment rates in Jordan and systematically test their validity, using micro-level data from Employment and Unemployment Surveys (2008-2018) and the Jordanian Labor Market Panel Survey (2010-2016). We find that the nature of low female inclusion in Jordan’s labor market varies significantly with educational attainment, and identify evidence for different factors affecting different educational groups. Among women with high school education or less, we observe extremely low participation levels and find the strongest evidence for this phenomenon tracing to traditional social norms and poor public transportation. On the higher end of the education spectrum – university graduates and above – we find that the problem is not one of participation, but rather of unemployment, which we attribute to a small and undiversified private sector that is unable to accommodate women’s needs for work and work-family balance.Link

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Rule of Law and Female Entrepreneurship

Rule of Law and Female Entrepreneurship. Edward Glaeser, October 2019, Paper, “Commerce requires trust, but trust is difficult when one group consistently fears expropriation by another. If men have a comparative advantage at violence and there is little rule-of-law, then unequal bargaining power can lead women to segregate into low-return industries and avoid entrepreneurship altogether. In this paper, we present a model of female entrepreneurship and rule of law that predicts that women will only start businesses when they have both formal legal protection and informal bargaining power. The model’s predictions are supported both in cross-national data and with a new census of Zambian manufacturers. In Zambia, female entrepreneurs collaborate less, learn less from fellow entrepreneurs, earn less and segregate into industries with more women, but gender differences are ameliorated when women have access to adjudicating institutions, such as Lusaka’s “Market Chiefs” who are empowered to adjudicate small commercial disputes. We experimentally induce variation in local institutional quality in an adapted trust game, and find that this also reduces the gender gap in trust and economic activity.Link

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The Gender Gap in Self-Promotion

The Gender Gap in Self-Promotion. Christine Exley, September 2, 2019, Paper, “In job applications, job interviews, performance reviews, and a wide range of other environments, individuals are explicitly asked or implicitly invited to describe their performance. In a series of experiments, we find that women subjectively describe their performance less favorably than equally performing men. This gender gap in self-promotion is notably persistent. It stays just as strong when we eliminate gender differences in confidence and when we eliminate strategic incentives to engage in self-promotion. Because of the prevalence of self-promotion opportunities, this self-promotion gap could potentially contribute to the persistent gender gap in education and labor market outcomes.Link

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Equal Pay Day: closing the gender wage gap

Equal Pay Day: closing the gender wage gap. Hannah Riley Bowles, April 1, 2019, Audio, “Today is Equal Pay Day so we’re going to spend the hour looking at the gender pay gap. Studies show that women working full-time make around 82 cents for every $1 that their male colleagues make. For women of color that divide is even larger. This hour, we’ll discuss why men continue to be paid more than women in the workplace, what role career choices and sex discrimination play in the disparity, and what can be done to shrink the gap. We’ll also talk about legislation that recently passed in the U.S. House of Representatives that would ensure equal wages for men and women. Our guests are JOCELYN FRYE, a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress, and HANNAH RILEY BOWLES, senior lecturer at Harvard Kennedy School.Link


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Why Do Americans Prefer Workplace Equality Over Equality At Home?

Why Do Americans Prefer Workplace Equality Over Equality At Home? Nancy Koehn, December 12, 2018, Audio, “A new study set to be published in the journal Gender and Society found that there is a gap in Americans’ ideology around gender roles at the workplace and at home. About a quarter of the people surveyed from 1977 to 2016 believe that while women should have the same opportunities in the workplace, they should still be doing the majority of the home and child care, according to a New York Times article about the study.Link

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A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India

A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India. Rohini Pande, October 2018, Paper, “Today in India, 67% percent of men own mobile phones, but only 33% percent of women do. South Asian countries in general are clear outliers among countries of similar levels of development, with India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh exhibiting some of the world’s highest gender gaps in access to technology. While the mobile gender gap matters in its own right, it is particularly problematic because it can exacerbate other important forms of inequality — in earnings, networking opportunities, and access to information.Link

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Why Is The Number Of Female CEOs Declining?

Why Is The Number Of Female CEOs Declining? Nancy Koehn, October 3, 2018, Audio, “Earlier this week, California Governor Jerry Brown signed a bill into law making his state the first in the nation to require the boards of publicly traded companies to include women. The moves comes as, nationwide, the number of women in top corporate leadership positions is on the decline. The number of female CEOs of Fortune 500 companies declined by 25 percent this year.Link

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What happens when investments targeting women’s microbusinesses go to men?

What happens when investments targeting women’s microbusinesses go to men? Rohini Pande, May 2, 2018, Paper, “Several studies find that male-operated – but not female-operated – microenterprises benefit from access to grants or loans. But these analyses overlook that female entrepreneurs often reside with a male business owner. Using data from randomized trials in India, Sri Lanka and Ghana, this paper finds that household-level income gains are equivalent regardless of the grant or loan recipient’s gender. Low average returns of female-run enterprises reflects the fact that women’s capital is typically invested into their husband’s enterprise.Link

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