Found 11 article(s) for author 'Firms'

Economists (and Economics) in Tech Companies

Economists (and Economics) in Tech Companies. Michael Luca, September 11, 2018, Paper, “As technology platforms have created new markets and new ways of acquiring information, economists have come to play an increasingly central role in tech companies – tackling problems such as platform design, strategy, pricing, and policy. Over the past five years, hundreds of PhD economists have accepted positions in the technology sector. In this paper, we explore the skills that PhD economists apply in tech companies, the companies that hire them, the types of problems that economists are currently working on, and the areas of academic research that have emerged in relation to these problems.Link

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Are economic rents good for development? Evidence from the manufacturing sector

Are economic rents good for development? Evidence from the manufacturing sector. Eric Werker, December 2018, Paper, “Are rents, or excess profits, good for development? Rents could induce firms to lobby or bribe governments to preserve the status quo; on the other hand, rents may promote growth by giving firms the needed funds to make investments in fixed capital or research and development. To test this question empirically, we use a panel of manufacturing data at the industry-country-year level, and measure rents by the mark-up ratio. We find that the relationship between rents and growth is strongly negative, with the results being primarily driven by the poorer countries (or those with worse institutions) in the sample.Link

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The Role of Industry, Occupation, and Location-Specific Knowledge in the Survival of New Firms

The Role of Industry, Occupation, and Location-Specific Knowledge in the Survival of New Firms. Edward Glaeser, July 2018, Paper, “How do regions acquire the knowledge they need to diversify their economic activities? How does the migration of workers among firms and industries contribute to the diffusion of that knowledge? Here we measure the industry, occupation, and location specific knowledge carried by workers from one establishment to the next using a dataset summarizing the individual work history for an entire country. We study pioneer firms-firms operating in an industry that was not present in a region-because the success of pioneers is the basic unit of regional economic diversification. We find that the growth and survival of pioneers increase significantly when their first hires are workers with experience in a related industry, and with work experience in the same location, but not with past experience in a related occupation.Link

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Firm Learning and Market Equilibrium

Firm Learning and Market Equilibrium. Ariel Pakes, 2018, Paper, “One goal of the field of industrial organization is to predict the response of markets to environmental or policy changes. A market, for our purposes, is a collection of firms that produce and sell competing products or services. Since the consequence of, say, a price change by a given firm depends on the prices of competing firms, realism requires analyzing these changes in the interacting agent frameworks supplied to us by our game theory colleagues. If a firm had set a profit maximizing price before an environmental change, that price was unlikely to be optimal after, say, a tariff or merger induced a price change by a competitor. It is important to take account of the price adjustments that followed the initial price change.Link

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Knowledge integrators and the survival of manufacturing clusters

Knowledge integrators and the survival of manufacturing clusters. Gary Pisano, June 26, 2018, Paper, “Over the past two decades, the greater prevalence of global supply chains has had contrasting effects on Western manufacturing clusters. While some of them dwindled, others proved resilient. Contributing to the recent literature on co-located clusters and clusters’ linkages, we focus on the impact of lead firms’ strategies on the competitiveness of a pair of ‘twin’ clusters located in Northeast Italy. Our findings suggest that production remains ‘sticky’ when leading firms pursue ‘process-embedded’ innovation by integrating global market and local technical knowledge. We refer to this type of firm as a Knowledge Integrator and discuss how its strategy supports the competitiveness of localized suppliers.Link

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Firms and Global Value Chains: Identifying Firms’ Multidimensional Trade Preferences

Firms and Global Value Chains: Identifying Firms’ Multidimensional Trade Preferences. Dustin Tingley, April 16, 2018, “Trade policy has become increasingly multidimensional. Current trade agreements not only address market access but also encompass rules and provisions related to flexibility of commitment, investment protection, and dispute settlement mechanisms. Yet, rigorous evidence about how interest groups evaluate each policy measure in relation to others remains scarce. We develop a firm-level theoretical framework to explain how firms’ international operations affect their preferences on different trade policy measures. We experimentally evaluate preferences over multiple policy dimensions using a conjoint analysis on firms in Costa Rica.Link

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The Fall of the Labor Share and the Rise of Superstar Firms

The Fall of the Labor Share and the Rise of Superstar Firms. Lawrence Katz, May 2017, Opinion, “The fall of labor’s share of GDP in the United States and many other countries in recent decades is well documented but its causes remain uncertain. Existing empirical assessments of trends in labor’s share typically have relied on industry or macro data, obscuring heterogeneity among firms. In this paper, we analyze micro panel data from the U.S. Economic Census since 1982 and international sources and document empirical patterns to assess a new interpretation of the fall in the labor share based on the rise of “superstar firms.” If globalization or technological changes advantage the most productive firms in each industry, product market concentration will rise as industries become increasingly dominated by superstar firms with high profits and a low share of labor in firm value-added and sales. As the importance of superstar firms increases, the aggregate labor share will tend to fall.Link

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Lessons from Schumpeterian Growth Theory

Lessons from Schumpeterian Growth Theory. Philippe Aghion, May 2015, Paper. “By operationalizing the notion of creative destruction, Schumpeterian growth theory generates distinctive predictions on important microeconomic aspects of the growth process (competition, firm dynamics, firm size distribution, cross-firm and cross-sector reallocation) which can be confronted using rich micro data. In this process the theory helps reconcile growth with industrial organization and development economics.” Link

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Why Do Firms Have “Purpose”? The Firm’s Role as a Carrier of Identity and Reputation

Why Do Firms Have “Purpose”? The Firm’s Role as a Carrier of Identity and Reputation. Rebecca Henderson, Eric Van den Steen, May 2015 , Paper. “This article develops a theory in which a firm’s adoption of a prosocial purpose can increase profitability by strengthening employees’ reputation and identity–leading to higher effort and lower wages–as long as implementing purpose is costly with respect to direct monetary payoffs. Employees who value prosocial action will select into firms with a social purpose, which then become a visible carrier for these employees’ identity and reputation.” Link

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Firms and the Economics of Skilled Immigration

Firms and the Economics of Skilled Immigration. William R. Kerr, April 2014, Paper. “Firms play a central role in the selection, sponsorship, and employment of skilled immigrants entering the United States for work through programs like the H-1B visa. This role has not been widely recognized in the literature, and the data to better understand it have only recently become available. This paper discusses the evidence that has been assembled to date in understanding the impact of high-skilled immigration from the perspective of the firm and the open areas that call for more research…” Link Verified October 12, 2014

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