Found 101 article(s) for author 'Edward Glaeser'

For Now, Pay Workers to Stay Home

For Now, Pay Workers to Stay Home. Edward Glaeser, March 23, 2020, Opinion, “Desperate times need extreme measures—and only in the face of the new coronavirus does it make sense for the federal government to send money directly to every American. Cash payments are the most direct way to reduce the economic harm that lockdowns will inflict on the one-fifth of workers employed in vulnerable service industries.Link

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Urbanization and its Discontents

Urbanization and its Discontents. Edward Glaeser, March 2020, Paper, “American cities have experienced a remarkable renaissance over the past 40 years, but in recent years, cities have experienced considerable discontent. Anger about high housing prices and gentrification has led to protests. The urban wage premium appears to have disappeared for less skilled workers. The cities of the developing world are growing particularly rapidly, but in those places, the downsides of density are acute. In this essay, I review the causes of urban discontent and present a unified explanation for this unhappiness. Urban resurgence represents private sector success, and the public sector typically only catches up to urban change with a considerable lag. Moreover, as urban machines have been replaced by governments that are more accountable to empowered residents, urban governments do more to protect insiders and less to enable growth. The power of insiders can be seen in the regulatory limits on new construction and new businesses, the slow pace of school reform and the unwillingness to embrace congestion pricing.Link

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The (Non-) Effect of Opportunity Zones on Housing Prices

The (Non-) Effect of Opportunity Zones on Housing Prices. Edward Glaeser, December 2019, Paper, “Will the Opportunity Zone program, America’s largest new place-based policy in decades, generate neighborhood change? We compare single-family housing price growth in Opportunity Zones with price growth in areas that were eligible but not included in the program. We also compare Opportunity Zones to their nearest geographic neighbors. All estimates rule out price impacts greater than 1.3 percentage points with 95% confidence, suggesting that, so far, home buyers don’t believe that this subsidy will generate major neighborhood change. Opportunity Zone status reduces prices in areas with little employment, perhaps because buyers think that subsidizing new investment will increase housing supply.Link

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Cities

Cities. Edward Glaeser, December 2019, Paper, “The United Nations forecasts that “Africa’s urban population is likely to nearly triple between 2018 and 2050”. Together, Africa and India account for almost two thirds of the projected growth in the world’s urban population from 4.2 billion in 2018 to 6.7 billion in 2050. The urbanisation of our planet’s poorer countries is one of the most important phenomena of the twenty-first century and a critical component of structural change. Yet, our intellectual tools for dealing with the great challenges of developing-country cities remain underdeveloped. In this paper, we survey the economics of developing-country cities and try to make the case that development economists should spend more of their time thinking about and working in cities and urban economists should spend more of their time thinking about and working in developing countries.Link

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Rule of Law and Female Entrepreneurship

Rule of Law and Female Entrepreneurship. Edward Glaeser, October 2019, Paper, “Commerce requires trust, but trust is difficult when one group consistently fears expropriation by another. If men have a comparative advantage at violence and there is little rule-of-law, then unequal bargaining power can lead women to segregate into low-return industries and avoid entrepreneurship altogether. In this paper, we present a model of female entrepreneurship and rule of law that predicts that women will only start businesses when they have both formal legal protection and informal bargaining power. The model’s predictions are supported both in cross-national data and with a new census of Zambian manufacturers. In Zambia, female entrepreneurs collaborate less, learn less from fellow entrepreneurs, earn less and segregate into industries with more women, but gender differences are ameliorated when women have access to adjudicating institutions, such as Lusaka’s “Market Chiefs” who are empowered to adjudicate small commercial disputes. We experimentally induce variation in local institutional quality in an adapted trust game, and find that this also reduces the gender gap in trust and economic activity.Link

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Should We All Be Living in Cities?

Should We All Be Living in Cities? Edward Glaeser, September 30, 2019, Audio, “Cities are an integral part of Earth’s future: by 2050, 68 percent of the world’s population will be living in an urban area. Solutions to social problems, from climate change to poverty, will therefore be tied to the fates of cities. In this episode, Glimp professor of economics Edward Glaeser explains why he is overwhelmingly optimistic about urban growth. Cities, he says, are engines of innovation and economic activity that create opportunity. “Humans,” he explains, “are a social species that gets smart by being around other smart people.” When they do, their impact on the planet’s climate is lessened in surprising ways—and in surprising places across the United States.Link

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Cities and Big Data

Cities and Big Data. Edward Glaeser, September 2019, Paper, “Historically, there has been a divide between urban economics and the physical aspects of the city itself. Social scientific research has been detached from subjects such as architecture and streetscapes. This lack of connection has been driven in part by a lack of data on the physical attributes of urban spaces. The “big data” revolution will change this. Big data turns a cross section of space into living data, offering a broader and finer picture of urban life than has ever been available before. Moreover, in combination with predictive algorithms, big data may allow us to extrapolate outcome variables such as house prices or income to previously unmeasured parts of a population. This policy brief showcases some examples of how big data can be used to develop cities.Link

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Securing Property Rights

Securing Property Rights. Edward Glaeser, Andrei Shleifer, August 19, 2019, Paper, “A central challenge in securing property rights is the subversion of justice through legal skill, bribery, or physical force by the strong—the state or its powerful citizens—against the weak. We present evidence that undue influence on judges is a common concern in many countries, especially among the poor. We then present a model of a water polluter whose discharges contaminate adjacent land. If this polluter can subvert the assessment of damages caused by his activity, there is an efficiency case for granting the landowner the right to an injunction that stops the polluter, rather than the right to compensation for the harm. If the polluter can subvert even the determination of his responsibility for harm, there is an efficiency case for regulation that restricts pollution regardless of its effects. We then conduct an empirical analysis of water quality in the U.S. before and after the Clean Water Act, and show how regulation brought about cleaner water, particularly in states with higher corruption.Link

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The Macroeconomic Implications of Housing Supply Restrictions

The Macroeconomic Implications of Housing Supply Restrictions. Edward Glaeser, June 15, 2019, Paper, “Housing supply restrictions, including historic preservation policies, minimum lot sizes and height limitations, are typically approached with static Pigouvian tools, but these policies also have dynamic implications. Restricted supply will typically make quantities, which determine construction employment, less volatile, and prices, which determine financial stability, more volatile. A prominent exception occurs when supply-unconstrained areas build so much during a boom that construction halts during the bust, and in that case, elastic supply can be associated with both price volatility and a limited ability to use credit instruments to boost employment during a bust. As institutions with counter-cyclical missions grapple with housing policies, they must recognize that housing regulation interacts with monetary policy, and that reforming housing policy may have implications for the business cycle.Link

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Urban management in the 21st century Ten insights from Professor Ed Glaeser

Urban management in the 21st century Ten insights from Professor Ed Glaeser. Edward Glaeser, June 2019, Paper, “In August 2018, CDE hosted Professor Ed Glaeser, the world’s leading urban economist and the Fred and Eleanor Glimp Professor of Economics in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University. He shared his critical insights based on vast experience during a series of seminars and engagements with leaders, policy makers and officials from the Johannesburg and Cape Town metro governments. To help improve the quality of South Africa’s discussion about cities’ vital role in growth and development, we are publishing here, in collaboration with Professor Glaeser, a summary of the key lessons that we drew from the questions he asked and the talks he gave.Link

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