Found 20 article(s) for author 'Education'

The Determinants of Income Segregation and Intergenerational Mobility: Using Test Scores to Measure Undermatching

The Determinants of Income Segregation and Intergenerational Mobility: Using Test Scores to Measure Undermatching. Raj Chetty, February 18, 2020, Paper, “We analyze how changes in the allocation of students to colleges would affect segregation by parental income across colleges and intergenerational mobility in the United States. We do so by linking data from tax records on parents’ incomes and students’ earnings outcomes for each college to data on students’ SAT and ACT scores. We find that equalizing application, admission, and matriculation rates across parental income groups conditional on test scores would reduce segregation substantially, primarily by increasing the representation of middle-class students at more selective colleges. However, it would have little impact on the fraction of low-income students at elite private colleges because there are relatively few students from low-income families with sufficiently high SAT/ACT scores. Differences in parental income distributions across colleges could be eliminated by giving low and middle-income students a sliding-scale preference in the application and admissions process similar to that implicitly given to legacy students at elite private colleges. Assuming that 80% of observational differences in students’ earnings conditional on test scores, race, and parental income are due to colleges’ causal effects — a strong assumption, but one consistent with prior work — such changes could reduce intergenerational income persistence among college students by about 25%. We conclude that changing how students are allocated to colleges could substantially reduce segregation and increase intergenerational mobility, even without changing colleges’ educational programs.Link

Tags: , , ,

Extending the Race between Education and Technology

Extending the Race between Education and Technology. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence Katz, January 11, 2020, Paper, “The race between education and technology provides a canonical framework that does an excellent job of explaining US wage structure changes across the twentieth century. The framework involves secular increases in the demand for more-educated workers from skill-biased technological change, combined with variations in the supply of skills from changes in educational access. We expand the analysis backwards and forwards. The framework helps explain rising skill differentials in the nineteenth and twenty-first centuries, but needs to be augmented to illuminate the recent convexification of education returns and implied slowdown in the growth of the relative demand.Link

Tags: , , , , , , ,

How much do preventive health behaviors explain education- and income-related inequalities in health? Results of Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition analysis

How much do preventive health behaviors explain education- and income-related inequalities in health? Results of Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition analysis. Ichiro Kawachi, 2020, Paper, “Five health practices are recognized to be essential for the prevention of chronic disease, viz. avoiding smoking, drinking in moderation, healthy diet, regular physical activity, and adequate sleep. However, how much of these behaviors contribute to socioeconomic disparities in health continues to be debated–some claim “hardly any,” while others say “nearly all.”Link

Tags: , , , ,

Creative Destruction or Idiot Winds: Schumpeterian Theory Meets the Educational Sector in Developing Countries

Creative Destruction or Idiot Winds: Schumpeterian Theory Meets the Educational Sector in Developing Countries. Mark Moore, 2019, Paper, “This is one of a series of working papers from “RISE”—the large-scale education systems research programme supported by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID), Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.Link

Tags: , , , , ,

Paul Reville on Redesigning Education in America

Paul Reville on Redesigning Education in America July 2019. GrowthPolicy’s Devjani Roy interviewed Paul Reville, the Francis Keppel Professor of Practice of Educational Policy and Administration at Harvard Graduate School of Education and former Secretary of Education for Massachusetts, on redesigning education in America. | Click here for more interviews like this one. Links: Paul […]

Tags: ,

The Purposes of Refugee Education: Policy and Practice of Including Refugees in National Education Systems

The Purposes of Refugee Education: Policy and Practice of Including Refugees in National Education Systems. Sarah Dryden-Peterson, July 16, 2019, Paper, “This article explores the understood purposes of refugee education at global, national, and school levels. To do so, we focus on a radical shift in global policy to integrate refugees into national education systems and the processes of vernacularization accompanying its widespread implementation. We use a comparative case study approach; our dataset comprises global policy documents and original interviews (n = 147) and observations in 14 refugee-hosting nation-states. We analyze how the purposes of refugee education are understood and acted upon by actors occupying diverse positions across these nation-states and over time. We demonstrate that the articulated purposes of refugee education are oriented toward possible futures for refugees, and they presuppose refugees’ access to quality education, social belonging, and economic opportunities. Yet we find that across nation-states of exile, refugees’ access to these resources is tenuous. Our findings suggest reconceptualizing refugee education to reflect how refugees are simultaneously embedded within multiple national contexts and to address the exclusions they face within each one. This study of refugee education has implications for understanding the purposes of education in other ever-more-common contexts of uncertainty, including the rapid economic and social changes brought about by migration, globalization, and technology. Empirically, understanding the purposes of refugee education is critical in a time of unprecedented forced migration.Link

Tags: , , , , , ,

Long-Term Impacts of Alternative Approaches to Increase Schooling: Experimental Evidence from a Scholarship Program in Cambodia

Long-Term Impacts of Alternative Approaches to Increase Schooling: Experimental Evidence from a Scholarship Program in Cambodia. Felipe Barrera-Osorio, August 24, 2018, Paper, “This paper reports on a randomized experiment to investigate the longterm effects of a primary school scholarship program in rural Cambodia. In 2008, fourth-grade students in 207 randomly assigned schools (103 treatment, 104 control) received scholarships based on the student’s academic performance in math and language or on their level of poverty. Three years after the program’s inception, an evaluation showed that both types of scholarship recipients had more schooling than non-recipients; however, only merit-based scholarships led to improvements in cognitive skills.Link

Tags: , , , ,

Human-Capital Externalities in China

Human-Capital Externalities in China. Edward Glaeser, August 2018, Paper, “This paper provides evidences of heterogeneous human-capital externality using CHIP 2002, 2007 and 2013 data from urban China. After instrumenting city-level education using the number of relocated university departments across cities in the 1950s, one year more city-level education increases individual hourly wage by 22.0 percent, more than twice the OLS estimate. Human-capital externality is found to be greater for all groups of urban residents in the instrumental variable estimation.Link

Tags: , , , , , ,