Found 36 article(s) for author 'Economic Development'

Behavioral Development Economics

Behavioral Development Economics. Michael Kremer, Gautam Rao, December 4, 2018, Paper, “Behavioral development economics applies theories and ideas from psychology and behavioral economics to the study of questions in development economics. We begin by examining a central puzzle in development economics: the existence of high rates of return without correspondingly rapid growth (the “Euler equation puzzle”). We discuss the extent to which present bias and loss aversion can help resolve this puzzle. We next consider various topics in development, including preventive health, savings, insurance, technology adoption, labor markets, and firms. We discuss particular behavioral theories that can help explain some key facts in each literature and describe the existing empirical evidence.Link

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Using RCTs to Estimate Long-Run Impacts in Development Economics

Using RCTs to Estimate Long-Run Impacts in Development Economics. Michael Kremer, December 3, 2018, Paper, “We assess evidence from randomized control trials (RCTs) on long-run economic productivity and living standards in poor countries. We first document that several studies estimate large positive long-run impacts, but that relatively few existing RCTs have been evaluated over the long-run. We next present evidence from a systematic survey of existing RCTs, with a focus on cash transfer and child health programs, and show that a meaningful subset can realistically be evaluated for long-run effects. We discuss ways to bridge the gap between the burgeoning number of development RCTs and the limited number that have been followed up to date, including through new panel (longitudinal) data, improved participant tracking methods, alternative research designs, and access to administrative, remote sensing, and cell phone data. We conclude that the rise of development economics RCTs since roughly 2000 provides a novel opportunity to generate high-quality evidence on the long-run drivers of living standards.Link

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A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India

A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India. Rohini Pande, October 2018, Paper, “Today in India, 67% percent of men own mobile phones, but only 33% percent of women do. South Asian countries in general are clear outliers among countries of similar levels of development, with India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh exhibiting some of the world’s highest gender gaps in access to technology. While the mobile gender gap matters in its own right, it is particularly problematic because it can exacerbate other important forms of inequality — in earnings, networking opportunities, and access to information.Link

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Living costs and living standards: Australian development 1820–1870

Living costs and living standards: Australian development 1820–1870. , October 29, 2018, Paper, “This paper contributes to the New World living standard leadership debate by comparing the Australian experience during 1820s–1870s with the USA, Latin America, and the UK. Using novel living costs data, we compute two estimates of income leadership: welfare ratios and purchasing–power–parity-adjusted GDP per capita. Australia started considerably below the UK and the USA but by the 1870s, it had overtaken the former and had almost done so for the latter, due to relatively rapid labour productivity growth and a steep decline in living costs. Still, in the 1870s Australia was not the world income leader, but a close second.Link

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Social Enterprise Is Not Social Change

Social Enterprise Is Not Social Change. Marshall Ganz, 2018, Paper, “Social enterprise and social entrepreneurship (SEE)—a business-inspired approach to solving social problems—has exploded across the United States and the world in the last decade. It has entrenched itself within a broad spectrum of fields, from economic development and urban planning to health and education policy. Since the Harvard Business School established the first “Social Enterprise Initiative” 25 years ago, SEE has rooted itself in more than 100 colleges and universities, anchored by endowed chairs and new courses in elite universities such as Stanford, Yale, Penn, Columbia, Duke, and the University of California, Berkeley. These institutions have helped turn SEE into an industry, funded by $1.6 billion in foundation grants since 2003.Link

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Crazy Rich Asia

Crazy Rich Asia. Kenneth Rogoff, October 9, 2018, Opinion, “With an unexpected hit on its hands, perhaps Hollywood will use more films like “Crazy Rich Asians” to illustrate key concepts about a region that is the biggest economic success story of the last several decades. There are many more stories about that story to be told.Link

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Will New Technologies Help or Harm Developing Countries?

Will New Technologies Help or Harm Developing Countries? Dani Rodrik, October 8, 2018, Opinion, “Trade and technology present an opportunity when they are able to leverage existing capabilities, and thereby provide a more direct and reliable path to development. When they demand complementary and costly investments, they are no longer a shortcut around traditional manufacturing-led development.Link

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The Albanian Miracle

The Albanian Miracle. Ricardo Hausmann, September 27, 2018, Opinion, “Once the “North Korea of Europe,” Albania now boasts an income level that is 25% that of Germany, double-digit export growth, and a strengthening currency. This suggests that the economists and multilateral institutions now being blamed for all sorts of disappointing outcomes may not be entirely useless after all.Link

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New Technologies, Global Value Chains, and the Developing Economies

New Technologies, Global Value Chains, and the Developing Economies. Dani Rodrik, 2018, Paper, “The Pathways for Prosperity Commission on Technology and Inclusive Development is proud to work with a talented and diverse group of commissioners who are global leaders from government, the private sector and academia. Hosted and managed by…Link

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Immigrants and the Making of America

Immigrants and the Making of America. Nathan Nunn, September 13, 2018, Paper, “We study the effects of European immigration to the United States during the Age of Mass Migration (1850–1920) on economic prosperity. Exploit cross-county variation in immigration arising from the interaction of fluctuations in aggregate immigrant flows and the gradual expansion of the railway network, we find that counties with more historical immigration have higher incomes, less poverty, less unemployment, higher rates of urbanization, and greater educational attainment today. The long-run effects seem to capture the persistence of short-run benefits, including greater industrialization, increased agricultural productivity, and more innovation.Link

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