Found 48 article(s) for author 'Economic Development'

A Roadmap for Investment Promotion and Export Diversification: The Case of Jordan

A Roadmap for Investment Promotion and Export Diversification: The Case of Jordan. Ricardo Hausmann, Miguel Angel Santos, December 2019, Paper, “Jordan faces a number of pressing economic challenges: low growth, high unemployment, rising debt levels, and continued vulnerability to regional shocks. After a decade of fast economic growth, the economy decelerated with the Global Financial Crisis of 2008-09. From then onwards, various external shocks have thrown its economy out of balance and prolonged the slowdown for over a decade now. Conflicts in neighboring countries have led to reduced demand from key export markets and cut off important trade routes. Foreign direct investment, which averaged 12.7% of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2003-2009, fell to 5.1% of GDP over the 2010-2017. Regional conflicts have interrupted the supply of gas from Egypt – forcing Jordan to import oil at a time of record prices, had a negative impact on tourism, and also provoked a massive influx of migrants and refugees. Failure to cope with 50.4% population growth between led to nine consecutive years (2008-2017) of negative growth rates in GDP per capita, resulting in a cumulative loss of 14.0% over the past decade (2009-2018). Debt to GDP ratios, which were at 55% by the end of 2009, have skyrocketed to 94%.Link

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Innis Lecture: Rethinking Economic Development

Innis Lecture: Rethinking Economic Development. Nathan Nunn, 2019, Paper, “I provide a summary, reflection, and assessment of the current state of economic development in both the policy and academic worlds. In terms of development policy, currently, the primary focus is on policy interventions, namely, foreign aid, aimed at fixing the `deficiencies’ of developing countries. Academic research also has a similar focus, except with an emphasis in rigorous evaluation of interventions to estimate causal effects. A standard set of versatile quantitative tools is used, e.g., experimental and quasi-experimental methods, which can be easily applied in a range of settings to estimate the causal effects of policies, which are typically presumed to be similar across contexts. In this article, I take a step back and ask whether the current practices are the best that we can do. Are foreign aid and policy interventions the best options we have for poverty alleviation? What else can be done? Is our current research strategy, characterized by rigorous but a lack of context-specific analysis, the best method of analysis? Is there a role for other research methods, for a deeper understanding of the local context and for more collaboration with local scholars?Link

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Rebirth of Industrial Policy and an Agenda for the 21st Century

Rebirth of Industrial Policy and an Agenda for the 21st Century. Dani Rodrik, November 2019, Paper, “After a period of decline in interest and premature predictions of demise, industrial policy is back on the scene. A variety of trends have contributed to the renewed interest. In the developing world there has been a pushback against the market-fundamentalist approach, typically associated with the Washington Consensus. Even when growth rates have been high, economies in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America have experienced unsatisfactory rates of productive transformation and shortfalls in generating quality jobs in manufacturing or modern services. This has created a demand for proactive government policies to diversify and upgrade economies beyond simply freeing up markets. In the advanced economies, generalized labor market malaise and the lingering effects of the financial crisis have produced similar effects. Low growth dynamics occurred especially in the euro zone, as countries with..Link

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Quid Pro Quo, Knowledge Spillover and Industrial Upgrading

Quid Pro Quo, Knowledge Spillover and Industrial Upgrading. Jie Bai, 2019, Paper, “Are quid pro quo (technology for market access) policies effective in facilitating knowledge spillover to developing countries? We study this question in the context of the Chinese automobile industry where foreign firms are required to set up joint ventures with domestic firms in return for market access. Using a unique dataset of detailed quality measures along multiple dimensions of vehicle performance, we document empirical patterns consistent with knowledge spillovers through both ownership affiliation and geographical proximity: joint ventures and Chinese domestic firms with ownership or location linkage tend to specialize in similar quality dimensions. The identification primarily relies on within-product variation across quality dimensions and the results are robust to a variety of specifications. The pattern is not driven by endogenous joint-venture network formation, overlapping customer base, or learning by doing considerations. Leveraging additional micro datasets on part suppliers and worker flow, we document that supplier network and labor mobility are important channels in mediating knowledge spillovers. However, these channels are not tied to ownership affiliations. Finally, we calibrate a simple learning model and conduct policy counterfactuals to examine the role of quid pro quo. Our findings show that ownership affiliation facilitates learning but quality improvement is primarily driven by the other mechanisms.Link

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Rethinking economic development

Rethinking Economic Development. Nathan Nunn, November 6, 2019, Paper, “I provide a summary, reflection and assessment of the current state of economic development in both the policy and academic worlds. In terms of development policy, currently, the primary focus is on policy interventions, namely, foreign aid, aimed at fixing the “deficiencies” of developing countries. Academic research also has a similar focus, except with an emphasis in rigorous evaluation of interventions to estimate causal effects. A standard set of versatile quantitative tools is used, e.g., experimental and quasi‐experimental methods, which can be easily applied in a range of settings to estimate the causal effects of policies, which are typically presumed to be similar across contexts. In this article, I take a step back and ask whether the current practices are the best that we can do. Are foreign aid and policy interventions the best options we have for poverty alleviation? What else can be done? Is our current research strategy, characterized by rigorous but a lack of context‐specific analysis, the best method of analysis? Is there a role for other research methods, for a deeper understanding of the local context and for more collaboration with local scholars?Link

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Where Are We in the Economics of Industrial Policies?

Where Are We in the Economics of Industrial Policies? Dani Rodrik, 2019, Paper, “Research on industrial policy has taken off, leading to a better understanding of when such policies effectively harness economic development. This article reviews the recent literature on the economics of industrial policies. Until recently, empirical studies on industrial policies came largely in one of two types: detailed country/region studies and cross-industry or cross-country econometric studies. I point out that the country/region studies had the usual problem that it was difficult to trace the effects of success to specific industrial policies, while the econometric studies suffered from the problem of misspecification. I show that a new generation of work has been moving us beyond the largely ideological debates of the past to a more contextual, pragmatic understanding.Link

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Innis Lecture – Rethinking Economic Development

Innis Lecture – Rethinking Economic Development. Nathan Nunn, August 28, 2019, Paper, “I provide a summary, reflection, and assessment of the current state of economic development in both the policy and academic worlds. In terms of development policy, currently, the primary focus is on policy interventions, namely, foreign aid, aimed at fixing the ‘deficiencies’ of developing countries. Academic research also has a similar focus, except with an emphasis in rigorous evaluation of interventions to estimate causal effects. A standard set of versatile quantitative tools is used, e.g., experimental and quasi-experimental methods, which can be easily applied in a range of settings to estimate the causal effects of policies, which are typically presumed to be similar across contexts. In this article, I take a step back and ask whether the current practices are the best that we can do. Are foreign aid and policy interventions the best options we have for poverty alleviation? What else can be done? Is our current research strategy, characterized by rigorous but a lack of context-specific analysis, the best method of analysis? Is there a role for other research methods, for a deeper understanding of the local context and for more collaboration with local scholars?Link

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Putting Global Governance in its Place

Putting Global Governance in its Place. Dani Rodrik, June 2019, Paper, “In a world economy that has become highly integrated, problems always seem to require more international cooperation and better global governance. The populist backlash and U.S. President Donald Trump’s trade antics, if anything, have added fuel to the economists’, technocrats’ and commentariat’s call for more internationalism. ““[V]irtually every problem destabilizing the world in this plastic moment is global in nature and can be confronted only with a coalition that is global…” wrote the New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman recently.2 Or as Nemat Shafik, then the time the deputy managing director of the International Monetary Fund, put it in 2013, “what happens anywhere affects everybody—and increasingly so. So it is pretty clear that the world needs more, not less, international coordination and cooperation.” Link

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As Populists Rise, Latin America’s Economies Will Fall

As Populists Rise, Latin America’s Economies Will Fall. Kenneth Rogoff, June 5, 2019, Opinion, “In the space of a year, populists with autocratic tendencies have taken office in Mexico and Brazil, and laid the groundwork to return to power in Argentina. With the three largest economies in Latin America destined for further mismanagement, the prospects for growth in the region are dim.Link

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Unequal Europe: Regional Integration and the Rise of European Inequality

Unequal Europe: Regional Integration and the Rise of European Inequality. Jason Beckfield, 2019, Book, “Argues that European integration causes the convergence and retrenchment of European welfare states. Shows that regional integration has important effects on European welfare states and income inequality in Europe over and above those of globalization. Develops the concept of “technocratic capitalism” as an interpretation of a predominant form of capitalism in the EU over the last thirty years.Link

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