Found 44 article(s) for author 'Economic Development'

Rethinking economic development

Rethinking Economic Development. Nathan Nunn, November 6, 2019, Paper, “I provide a summary, reflection and assessment of the current state of economic development in both the policy and academic worlds. In terms of development policy, currently, the primary focus is on policy interventions, namely, foreign aid, aimed at fixing the “deficiencies” of developing countries. Academic research also has a similar focus, except with an emphasis in rigorous evaluation of interventions to estimate causal effects. A standard set of versatile quantitative tools is used, e.g., experimental and quasi‐experimental methods, which can be easily applied in a range of settings to estimate the causal effects of policies, which are typically presumed to be similar across contexts. In this article, I take a step back and ask whether the current practices are the best that we can do. Are foreign aid and policy interventions the best options we have for poverty alleviation? What else can be done? Is our current research strategy, characterized by rigorous but a lack of context‐specific analysis, the best method of analysis? Is there a role for other research methods, for a deeper understanding of the local context and for more collaboration with local scholars?Link

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Where Are We in the Economics of Industrial Policies?

Where Are We in the Economics of Industrial Policies? Dani Rodrik, 2019, Paper, “Research on industrial policy has taken off, leading to a better understanding of when such policies effectively harness economic development. This article reviews the recent literature on the economics of industrial policies. Until recently, empirical studies on industrial policies came largely in one of two types: detailed country/region studies and cross-industry or cross-country econometric studies. I point out that the country/region studies had the usual problem that it was difficult to trace the effects of success to specific industrial policies, while the econometric studies suffered from the problem of misspecification. I show that a new generation of work has been moving us beyond the largely ideological debates of the past to a more contextual, pragmatic understanding.Link

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Innis Lecture – Rethinking Economic Development

Innis Lecture – Rethinking Economic Development. Nathan Nunn, August 28, 2019, Paper, “I provide a summary, reflection, and assessment of the current state of economic development in both the policy and academic worlds. In terms of development policy, currently, the primary focus is on policy interventions, namely, foreign aid, aimed at fixing the ‘deficiencies’ of developing countries. Academic research also has a similar focus, except with an emphasis in rigorous evaluation of interventions to estimate causal effects. A standard set of versatile quantitative tools is used, e.g., experimental and quasi-experimental methods, which can be easily applied in a range of settings to estimate the causal effects of policies, which are typically presumed to be similar across contexts. In this article, I take a step back and ask whether the current practices are the best that we can do. Are foreign aid and policy interventions the best options we have for poverty alleviation? What else can be done? Is our current research strategy, characterized by rigorous but a lack of context-specific analysis, the best method of analysis? Is there a role for other research methods, for a deeper understanding of the local context and for more collaboration with local scholars?Link

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Putting Global Governance in its Place

Putting Global Governance in its Place. Dani Rodrik, June 2019, Paper, “In a world economy that has become highly integrated, problems always seem to require more international cooperation and better global governance. The populist backlash and U.S. President Donald Trump’s trade antics, if anything, have added fuel to the economists’, technocrats’ and commentariat’s call for more internationalism. ““[V]irtually every problem destabilizing the world in this plastic moment is global in nature and can be confronted only with a coalition that is global…” wrote the New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman recently.2 Or as Nemat Shafik, then the time the deputy managing director of the International Monetary Fund, put it in 2013, “what happens anywhere affects everybody—and increasingly so. So it is pretty clear that the world needs more, not less, international coordination and cooperation.” Link

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As Populists Rise, Latin America’s Economies Will Fall

As Populists Rise, Latin America’s Economies Will Fall. Kenneth Rogoff, June 5, 2019, Opinion, “In the space of a year, populists with autocratic tendencies have taken office in Mexico and Brazil, and laid the groundwork to return to power in Argentina. With the three largest economies in Latin America destined for further mismanagement, the prospects for growth in the region are dim.Link

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Unequal Europe: Regional Integration and the Rise of European Inequality

Unequal Europe: Regional Integration and the Rise of European Inequality. Jason Beckfield, 2019, Book, “Argues that European integration causes the convergence and retrenchment of European welfare states. Shows that regional integration has important effects on European welfare states and income inequality in Europe over and above those of globalization. Develops the concept of “technocratic capitalism” as an interpretation of a predominant form of capitalism in the EU over the last thirty years.Link

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Realizing the Potential of Public-Private Partnerships to Advance Asia’s Infrastructure Development

Realizing the Potential of Public-Private Partnerships to Advance Asia’s Infrastructure Development. Akash Deep, January 2019, Paper, “The rapid growth in developing Asia’s infrastructure has helped power the region’s fast growth. Despite their impressive performance, many developing countries have glaring infrastructure deficits in electricity, transport, and water and sanitation. It is estimated that annual investments of $1.7 trillion, including for climate mitigation and adaptation, will be needed across developing Asia in 2016–2030 to maintain the region’s growth momentum, eradicate poverty— the region’s main unfinished development agenda—and take effective action against climate change. Indeed, infrastructure will be a key element in attaining the Sustainable Development Goals, and its expansion will be vital for tackling Asia’s rapid urbanization and strengthening value chains.Link

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Behavioral Development Economics

Behavioral Development Economics. Michael Kremer, Gautam Rao, December 4, 2018, Paper, “Behavioral development economics applies theories and ideas from psychology and behavioral economics to the study of questions in development economics. We begin by examining a central puzzle in development economics: the existence of high rates of return without correspondingly rapid growth (the “Euler equation puzzle”). We discuss the extent to which present bias and loss aversion can help resolve this puzzle. We next consider various topics in development, including preventive health, savings, insurance, technology adoption, labor markets, and firms. We discuss particular behavioral theories that can help explain some key facts in each literature and describe the existing empirical evidence.Link

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Using RCTs to Estimate Long-Run Impacts in Development Economics

Using RCTs to Estimate Long-Run Impacts in Development Economics. Michael Kremer, December 3, 2018, Paper, “We assess evidence from randomized control trials (RCTs) on long-run economic productivity and living standards in poor countries. We first document that several studies estimate large positive long-run impacts, but that relatively few existing RCTs have been evaluated over the long-run. We next present evidence from a systematic survey of existing RCTs, with a focus on cash transfer and child health programs, and show that a meaningful subset can realistically be evaluated for long-run effects. We discuss ways to bridge the gap between the burgeoning number of development RCTs and the limited number that have been followed up to date, including through new panel (longitudinal) data, improved participant tracking methods, alternative research designs, and access to administrative, remote sensing, and cell phone data. We conclude that the rise of development economics RCTs since roughly 2000 provides a novel opportunity to generate high-quality evidence on the long-run drivers of living standards.Link

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A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India

A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India. Rohini Pande, October 2018, Paper, “Today in India, 67% percent of men own mobile phones, but only 33% percent of women do. South Asian countries in general are clear outliers among countries of similar levels of development, with India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh exhibiting some of the world’s highest gender gaps in access to technology. While the mobile gender gap matters in its own right, it is particularly problematic because it can exacerbate other important forms of inequality — in earnings, networking opportunities, and access to information.Link

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