Found 43 article(s) for author 'Development'

An Economic Rationale for the West African Scramble? The Commercial Transition and the Commodity Price Boom of 1835-1885

An Economic Rationale for the West African Scramble? The Commercial Transition and the Commodity Price Boom of 1835-1885. Jeffrey Williamson, March 23, 2020, Paper, “We use a new trade dataset showing that nineteenth century Sub-Saharan Africa experienced a terms of trade boom comparable to other parts of the ‘global periphery’. A sharp rise in export prices in the five decades before the scramble (1835-1885) was followed by an equally impressive decline during the colonial era. This study revises the view that the scramble for West Africa occurred when its major export markets were in decline and argues that the larger weight of West Africa in French imperial trade strengthened the rationale for French instead of British initiative in the conquest of the interior.Link

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Long‐term trend in socioeconomic inequalities and geographic variation in the utilization of antenatal care service in India between 1998 and 2015

Long‐term trend in socioeconomic inequalities and geographic variation in the utilization of antenatal care service in India between 1998 and 2015. S V Subramanian, March 4, 2020, Paper, “Objective, To investigate the temporal trend of socioeconomic and rural‐urban disparities and geographical variation in the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services in India before and throughout the Millennium Development Goals era. Data Sources/Study Setting, For this temporal analysis, secondary data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys between 1998 and 2015 (Waves 2, 3, and 4) were used.Link

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Illuminating homes with LEDs in India: Rapid market creation towards low-carbon technology transition in a developing country

Illuminating homes with LEDs in India: Rapid market creation towards low-carbon technology transition in a developing country. Venkatesh Narayanamurti, 2020, Paper, “Near-term climate change mitigation calls for technological innovation and widespread implementation of appropriate technologies. This is salient in emerging economies, where impending socio-economic and infrastructural transitions hold immense potential for locking-in low-carbon development pathways. Yet, little is understood about how developing countries can scale appropriate technology transitions, given their often underdeveloped technological innovation capabilities and supporting infrastructures and finances. This paper examines a recent, rapid, and ongoing transition of India’s lighting market to light emitting diode (LED) technology, from a negligible market share to LEDs becoming the dominant lighting products within five years, despite the country’s otherwise limited visibility in the global solid-state lighting industry. Annual sales of LED bulbs grew more than 130 times to over 650 million bulbs between 2014–2018, with over 30 billion kWh of estimated annual energy savings. Focusing on this striking story of technology transition, this paper analyzes India’s LED uptake using semi-structured interviews and drawing on the technology innovation systems literature. The results show that the success of transition coexists with its share of shortfalls, and that there is an important tension between the lowering of upfront costs of low-carbon technologies and the efforts to enhance domestic technological capabilities. The paper discusses the results for the Indian LED case and emphasizes the importance of consistent strategic action taking into account all (and not limited) parts of the technology innovation system, while also providing insights on how mitigation technologies can be developed and deployed in developing countries.Link

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Urban waste to energy recovery assessment simulations for developing countries

Urban waste to energy recovery assessment simulations for developing countries. Venkatesh Narayanamurti, 2020, Paper, “Waste collection, treatment, and safe disposal systems are rare in developing countries as these processes and systems have been mostly viewed from a cost-centric perspective in conjunction with weak or non-existent environmental policies. Consequently, solid waste generation has turned into a problem of significant proportions in many countries with severe degradation of land, air, and water quality and adverse effects on environment and public health. New waste-to-energy (WtE) systems using municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce energy (based on emerging technologies beyond traditional incineration), can serve as a useful bridge towards sustainable waste management. In this paper, a quantitative Waste to Energy Recovery Assessment (WERA) framework is used to stochastically analyze the feasibility of WtE in selected cities in Asia. Future policy measures of feed-in tariffs, payments for avoided pollution, and higher waste collection fees are assessed to evaluate if WtE systems can be made self-sustaining investments. The results show that WtE systems can generate up to 290 GWh of electricity in Karachi, and up to 60 GWh in Delhi from municipal waste feedstock from which recyclables (such as paper and plastics) have been removed. Net Present Value (NPV) estimation shows that hybrid WtE technology systems can be feasible in Karachi and Delhi with policy support, however Jakarta’s case is challenging due to higher costs. Future investments for waste systems should use holistic evaluations that incorporate key social benefits and costs – not only of energy generation but also of emissions reductions and impacts on public health – and identify necessary policy support for ensuring viable and sustainable solutions.Link

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When Do Development Projects Enhance Community Well-Being?

When Do Development Projects Enhance Community Well-Being? Michael Woolcock, July 4, 2019, Paper, “Many development agencies and governments now seek to engage directly with local communities, whether as a means to the realization of more familiar goals (infrastructure, healthcare, education) or as an end in itself (promoting greater inclusion, participation, well-being). These same agencies and governments, however, are also under increasing pressure to formally demonstrate that their actions ‘work’ and achieve their goals within relatively short timeframes – expectations which are, for the most part, necessary and desirable. But adequately assessing ‘community-driven’ approaches to development requires the deployment of theory and methods that accommodate their distinctive characteristics: building bridges is a qualitatively different task to building the rule of law and empowering minorities. Moreover, the ‘lessons’ inferred from average treatment effects derived from even the most rigorous assessments of community-driven interventions are unlikely to translate cleanly to different contexts and scales of operation. Some guidance for anticipating and managing these conundrums are provided.Link

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Using Randomized Controlled Trials to Estimate Long-Run Impacts in Development Economics

Using Randomized Controlled Trials to Estimate Long-Run Impacts in Development Economics. Michael Kremer, May 13, 2019, Paper, “We assess evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on long-run economic productivity and living standards in poor countries. We first document that several studies estimate large positive long-run impacts, but that relatively few existing RCTs have been evaluated over the long run. We next present evidence from a systematic survey of existing RCTs, with a focus on cash transfer and child health programs, and show that a meaningful subset can realistically be evaluated for long-run effects. We discuss ways to bridge the gap between the burgeoning number of development RCTs and the limited number that have been followed up to date, including through new panel (longitudinal) data; improved participant tracking methods; alternative research designs; and access to administrative, remote sensing, and cell phone data. We conclude that the rise of development economics RCTs since roughly 2000 provides a novel opportunity to generate high-quality evidence on the long-run drivers of living standards.Link

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Can Free Markets Revive Brazil?

Can Free Markets Revive Brazil? Lawrence Summers, April 25, 2019, Audio, “Will a dose of free-market policies — from a populist politician, no less — finally bring Latin America’s biggest economy back to life? On this week’s episode of Stephanomics, Bruce Douglas visits the region’s busiest port to get a taste of what’s ailing Brazil — and the possible cure.  Host Stephanie Flanders also brings you the second part of her interview with Harvard University economist Larry Summers — the former U.S. Treasury secretary and Obama adviser — with his comments on Brazil’s economy and the new thinking on progressive U.S. fiscal policy. Finally, Stephanie talks with editor Catarina Saraiva about Bloomberg’s dreaded Misery Index.Link



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Is Oil Wealth Good for Private Sector Development?

Is Oil Wealth Good for Private Sector Development? Melani Cammett, Ishac Diwan, 2019, Paper, “When do autocratic rulers in oil-producing countries support private sector development? We argue that the size of oil rents per capita has an important effect on ruler support for the rule of law, respect for private property rights, and other factors that promote private investment. However, the effect is not linear, but instead resembles a U-curve: Only in countries with middle levels of per capita oil wealth would we expect the state to repress the private sector. At both low and high levels of oil wealth, autocrats interested in regime preservation would support and promote the private sector. Descriptive analyses of governance measures in Middle Eastern oil producers situated in comparative perspective offer empirical support for these propositions. These arguments and findings contradict some of the key claims in the resource curse literature but also differ from arguments that offer historically grounded explanations for development among oil exporters.Link

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Why Trust Is the Gold Standard in Developing Countries

Why Trust Is the Gold Standard in Developing Countries. Tarun Khanna, April 18, 2019, Audio, “Entrepreneurs in the developing world face a distinct disadvantage over their Western counterparts – a widespread lack of trust. Western nations have spent centuries putting in place customs, institutions and regulations to support new companies. But those structures don’t necessarily exist in places like India, South America, Africa or China. Harvard Business School professor Tarun Khanna believes smart entrepreneurs who want to succeed in places with “rampant mistrust” must build their own microcosm of trust with employees, partners and customers. Khanna, who is also director of the Lakshmi Mittal and Family South Asia Institute at Harvard, details this approach in his new book, Trust: Creating the Foundation for Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries. He spoke on the Knowledge@Wharton radio show on SiriusXM about why a conventional strategy doesn’t work wherever societal mistrust is the norm.Link

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