Found 8 article(s) for author 'Bruce Western'

Racialized Re-entry: Labor Market Inequality After Incarceration

Racialized Re-entry: Labor Market Inequality After Incarceration. Bruce Western, October 1, 2018, Paper, “Why do some people succeed in the labor market after incarceration but others do not? We study the transition from prison to work with data on monthly employment and earnings for a sample of men and women observed for a year after incarceration. More than in earlier research, the data provide detailed measurement of temporary and informal employment and richly describe the labor market disadvantages of formerly incarcerated men and women. We find that half the sample is jobless in any given month and average earnings are well below the poverty level.Link

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Poverty in America: New Directions and Debates

Poverty in America: New Directions and Debates. Matthew Desmond, Bruce Western, July 2018, Paper, “Reviewing recent research on poverty in the United States, we derive a conceptual framework with three main characteristics. First, poverty is multidimensional, compounding material hardship with human frailty, generational trauma, family and neighborhood violence, and broken institutions. Second, poverty is relational, produced through connections between the truly advantaged and the truly disadvantaged. Third, a component of this conceptual framework is transparently normative, applying empirical research to analyze poverty as a matter of justice, not just economics. Throughout, we discuss conceptual, methodological, and policy-relevant implications of this perspective on the study of extreme disadvantage in America.Link

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Racial Inequality in Employment and Earnings after Incarceration

Racial Inequality in Employment and Earnings after Incarceration. Bruce Western, February 2017, Paper, “This paper analyzes monthly employment and earnings in the year after incarceration with survey data from a sample of individuals just released from prison. More than in earlier research, the data provide detailed measurement of temporary and informal employment and richly describe the labor market disadvantages of formerly-incarcerated men and women. We find that half the sample is jobless in any given month and average earnings are well below the poverty level. Jointly modeling employment and earnings, blacks and Hispanics are estimated to have lower total earnings than whites even after accounting for health, human capital, and criminal involvement.Link

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Cohort Change and Racial Differences in Educational and Income Mobility

Cohort Change and Racial Differences in Educational and Income Mobility. Bruce Western, December 22, 2011, Paper. “Policy reforms and rising income inequality transformed educational and economic opportunities for Americans approaching midlife in the 1990s. Rising income inequality may have reduced mobility, as income gaps increased between rich and poor children. Against the effects of rising inequality, Civil Rights reforms may have increased mobility, as opportunities expanded across cohorts of black students and workers. We compare educational and income mobility for two cohorts of black and white men, the older born in the late 1940s…” Link

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Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment

Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment. Bruce Western, October 1, 2009, Paper. “Decades of racial progress have led some researchers and policymakers to doubt that discrimination remains an important cause of economic inequality. To study contemporary discrimination, we conducted a field experiment in the low-wage labor market of New York City, recruiting white, black, and Latino job applicants who were matched on demographic characteristics and interpersonal skills. These applicants were given equivalent résumés and sent to apply in tandem for hundreds of entry-level jobs. Our results show that black applicants…” Link

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Variance Function Regressions for Studying Inequality

Variance Function Regressions for Studying Inequality. Bruce Western, January 2009, Paper. “Regression-based studies of inequality model only between-group differences, yet often these differences are far exceeded by residual inequality. Residual inequality is usually attributed to measurement error or the influence of unobserved characteristics. We present a regression that includes covariates for both the mean and variance of a dependent variable. In this model, the residual variance is treated as a target for analysis. In analyses of inequality, the residual variance might be interpreted as measuring risk or insecurity …” Link

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Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets

Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets. Bruce Western, 2009, Paper. “A large body of theoretical and empirical research would lead us to predict a steady decline in discrimination, but several features of contemporary low-wage labor markets may function to sustain or renew racialized decision-making. Shifts in the composition of both low-wage jobs and workers have potentially created new incentives and opportunities for employers to enact racial preferences in the selection of workers.Link

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