Found 14 article(s) for author 'Ashley Whillans'

Overcoming Resource Scarcity: Consumers’ Response to Gifts Intending to Save Time and Money

Overcoming Resource Scarcity: Consumers’ Response to Gifts Intending to Save Time and Money. Ashley Whillans, 2020, Paper, “Consumers feel increasingly pressed for time and money. Gifts have the potential to reduce scarcity in recipients’ lives, yet little is known about how recipients perceive gifts given with the intention of saving them time or money. Across 4 studies (N=1,403), we demonstrate that the recipients of gifts intending to save money experience more negative self-conscious emotions and infer lower status position than recipients of gifts intending to save time. Recipients who report experiencing greater financial scarcity in their daily lives (who may benefit most from gifts intending to save them money), experience negative emotions to a greater extent and perceive an even lower status position than recipients who experience relatively little money scarcity. These findings are the first to directly evaluate the implications of receiving gifts seeking to address time and money scarcity and suggest that recipients may benefit more from gifts given with the intention to save time.Link

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Income Inequality Affects Donations Only for High-Income People Who Feel Financially Insecure and Distrust Others

Income Inequality Affects Donations Only for High-Income People Who Feel Financially Insecure and Distrust Others. Ashley Whillans, 2019, Paper, “There is a growing debate about whether high-income individuals are more or less generous when income inequality is high. We advance this ongoing conversation by analysing a large and comprehensive data set with approximately one million respondents from 140 countries. In this data set, higher-income individuals who live in countries with greater income inequality are less likely to donate money to charity and are more likely to volunteer than their lower-income counterparts. Higher-income individuals who feel financially insecure or show distrust of others are especially unlikely to donate money to charity under high income inequality. These moderators do not influence rates of volunteering. Together, these results advance the debate regarding whether and when inequality shapes prosocial behaviour.Link

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Beyond Material Poverty: Why Time Poverty Matters for Individuals, Organisations, and Nations

Beyond Material Poverty: Why Time Poverty Matters for Individuals, Organisations, and Nations. Ashley Whillans, October 2019, Paper, “Over the last two decades, global wealth has risen. Yet, material affluence has not translated into time affluence. Instead, most people today report feeling persistently “time poor”—like they have too many things to do and not enough time to do them. This is critical because time poverty is linked to lower well-being, physical health, and productivity. For example, in our analysis of 2.5 million Americans, subjective feelings of time poverty had a stronger negative effect on well-being than being unemployed. However, individuals, organisations, and policymakers often overlook the pernicious effects of time poverty. Billions of dollars are spent each year to alleviate material poverty, while time poverty is often ignored or exacerbated. In this Perspective, we discuss the organisational, institutional, and psychological factors that explain why time poverty is often under appreciated. We argue that scientists, policymakers, and organisational leaders need to devote more attention and resources toward understanding and reducing time poverty to promote psychological and economic well-being.Link

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Are New Graduates Happier Making More Money or Having More Time?

Are New Graduates Happier Making More Money or Having More Time? Ashley Whillans, July 25, 2019, Paper, “Each year across North America, millions of graduates have to make tradeoffs between time and money as they plan their next steps. Despite the importance of these choices, we know surprisingly little about how people navigate major life decisions that involve making more money at the expense of having less time, and vice versa. Researchers asked more than 1,000 graduating college students in Canada whether they generally prioritized time or money. They found that students who prioritized time at graduation were happier and more satisfied with their careers 1 to 2 years later than those who prioritized money. They explored why that might be and how factors like financial security and student debt play a role in people’s decision-making and happiness.Link

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The Power of Workplace Rewards: Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Why Reward Satisfaction Matters for Workers Around the World

The Power of Workplace Rewards: Using Self-Determination Theory to Understand Why Reward Satisfaction Matters for Workers Around the World. Ashley Whillans, April 17, 2019, Paper, “How can workplace rewards promote employee well-being and engagement? To answer these questions, we utilized self-determination theory to examine whether reward satisfaction predicted employee well-being, job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and affective commitment, as well as valuable organizational outcomes, such as workplace contribution and loyalty. Specifically, we investigated the role of three universal psychological needs—autonomy, competence and relatedness—in explaining whether and why reward satisfaction matters for employees’ well-being. We tested our model in a large, cross-sectional study with full-time employees working for multinational corporations in six main world regions: Asia, Europe, India, Latin America, North America and Oceania (N = 5,852). Consistent with our theorizing, we found cross-cultural evidence that reward satisfaction promoted greater employee functioning through psychological need satisfaction, contributing to better organizational outcomes. Critically, our results were consistent regardless of geographic location. As such, this study provides some of the strongest evidence to date for the power of understanding psychological mechanisms in the workplace: Regardless of the actual rewards that employees received, how workplace rewards made employees feel significantly predicted their optimal functioning.Link

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Communicating Resource Scarcity

Communicating Resource Scarcity. Ashley Whillans, Michael Norton, 2019, Paper, “The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships require investments of both money and time—resources that are often limited in supply, but in great demand. Indeed, consumers are regularly asked to dedicate their money and time to social engagements, and need to manage these resources efficiently. Therefore, consumers often choose to cite insufficient time or money as an excuse for rejecting social invitations. But how does using the excuse of financial versus time scarcity influence interpersonal relationships? Across eight experiments, we demonstrate that using financial scarcity as an excuse (e.g., “I don’t have money”) increases perceptions of interpersonal closeness and helping behavior compared to using time scarcity as an excuse (e.g., “I don’t have time”). This effect is explained by the fact that time is perceived as a more personally controllable resource than money, resulting in consumers who cite financial (vs. temporal) constraints as being perceived as more trustworthy.Link

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From Dollars to Sense: Placing a Monetary Value on Non-Cash Compensation Encourages Employees to Value Time over Money

From Dollars to Sense: Placing a Monetary Value on Non-Cash Compensation Encourages Employees to Value Time over Money.  Ashley Whillans, 2019, Paper, “When deciding where to work, employees may focus too much on salary and not enough on non cash benefits such as paid time-off, potentially undermining their long-term happiness. We propose a simple solution to encourage employees to recognize the value of non-cash benefits: list the financial value of non-cash compensation. Results from one archival data set (n = 42,271) and eight studies (n = 3,190) provide evidence for these ideas. First, as expected, employees who receive non-cash compensation are happier than employees who do not. Yet, prospective employees underestimate the happiness benefit of non-cash benefits. Second, and most critically, prospective employees are more likely to choose jobs with greater non-cash benefits and lower salaries when the cash value of these non-cash benefits are listed.Link

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Use Your Money to Buy Happier Time

Use Your Money to Buy Happier Time. Ashley Whillans, January 29, 2019, Audio, “Ashley Whillans, professor at Harvard Business School, researches time-money trade-offs. She argues more people would be happier if they spent more of their hard-earned money to buy themselves out of negative experiences. Her research shows that paying to outsource housework or to enjoy a shorter commute can have an outsized impact on happiness and relationships. Whillans is the author of the HBR article “Time for Happiness.”Link

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Winning the War for Talent: Modern Motivational Methods for Attracting and Retaining Employees

Winning the War for Talent: Modern Motivational Methods for Attracting and Retaining Employees. Ashley Whillans, October 31, 2018, Paper, “Given the struggle that many organizations face hiring and retaining talent in today’s tight labor market, it is critical to understand how to effectively reward employees. To address this question, we review relevant evidence that explains the importance of workplace rewards and recognition. Based on a review and synthesis of the current literature, we make the case that organizations should move beyond salary and traditional cash rewards to place greater emphasis on nonpecuniary, tangible and intangible rewards and recognition initiatives.Link

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