The Economic Implications of a Low-Carbon Future. Joseph Aldy, January 2019, Paper, “What are the costs and benefits of reducing the carbon intensity of the U.S. economy? The economic costs of decarbonization reflect the stringency of climate policy goals—how ambitious is the objective and how quickly must the economy meet it—and the responsiveness of investment and consumption to new policies and associated price signals. The more low-cost opportunities for switching to lower- and zero-carbon energy sources and the more options for energy efficiency and conservation, the lower the cost of any decarbonization goal. The costs will also reflect a number of critical policy design choices that will affect the cost-effectiveness of reducing carbon emissions, the creation and use of economic value (such as carbon tax revenues) that could promote economic growth, and the potential for innovation policy to complement emission mitigation policy.Link