Found 439 article(s) in category 'Trade Policy'

The Building Blocks of Economic Complexity

The Building Blocks of Economic Complexity. Ricardo Hausmann, September 2009, Paper. “For Adam Smith, wealth was related to the division of labor. As people and firms specialize in different activities, economic efficiency increases, suggesting that development is associated with an increase in the number of individual activities and with the complexity that emerges from the interactions between them. Here we develop a view of economic growth and development that gives a central role to the complexity of a country’s economy by interpreting trade data as a bipartite network in which…” Link

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The building blocks of economic complexity

The building blocks of economic complexity. Ricardo Hausmann, June 28, 2009. “For Adam Smith, wealth was related to the division of labor. As people and firms specialize in different activities, economic efficiency increases, suggesting that development is associated with an increase in the number of individual activities and with the complexity that emerges from the interactions between them. Here we develop a view of economic growth and development that gives a central role to the complexity of a country’s economy by interpreting trade data as a bipartite network in which countries are connected to the products they export, and show…” Link

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Regional Trade Integration and Multinational Firm Strategies

Regional Trade Integration and Multinational Firm Strategies. Pol Antras, C. Fritz Foley, April 2009, Book Chapter. “This paper analyzes the effects of the formation of a regional trade agreement on the level and nature of multinational firm activity. We examine aggregate data that captures the response of U.S. multinational firms to the formation of the ASEAN free trade agreement. Observed patterns guide the development of a model in which heterogeneous firms from a source country decide how to serve two foreign markets. Following a reduction in tariffs on trade between the two foreign countries, the model predicts growth in the number of…” Link

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Exchange Rate Volatility and Productivity Growth: The Role of Financial Development

Exchange Rate Volatility and Productivity Growth: The Role of Financial Development. Philippe Aghion, Kenneth Rogoff, 2009, Paper. “This paper offers empirical evidence that real exchange rate volatility can have a significant impact on long-term rate of productivity growth, but the effect depends critically on a country’s level of financial development. For countries with relatively low levels of financial development, exchange rate volatility generally reduces growth, whereas for financially advanced countries, there is no significant effect. Our empirical analysis is based on an 83 country data set spanning the years 1960-2000…”  Link

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Financial Globalization: A Reappraisal

Financial Globalization: A Reappraisal. Kenneth Rogoff, 2009, Paper. “The literature on the benefits and costs of financial globalization for developing countries has exploded in recent years, but along many disparate channels with a variety of apparently conflicting results. There is still little robust evidence of the growth benefits of broad capital account liberalization, but a number of recent papers in the finance literature report that equity market liberalizations do significantly boost growth…” Link

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Comment: Policymaking Insights from Behavioral Economics

Comment: Policymaking Insights from Behavioral Economics. David Laibson, 2009, Opinion. “Annamaria Lusardi’s paper is a wonderful summary of what is known about financial literacy and financial decisionmaking. I strongly recommend that anyone who is thinking about household savings behavior or savings policy read her paper. It emphasizes the recent findings that Lusardi and her coauthors have generated: financial illiteracy is an important contributor to suboptimal investment choicesMy comments cover four topics. First, I discuss the classical economic argument that economic choices might be sophisticated…” Link

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The Economics of Growth

The Economics of Growth. Philippe Aghion, December 19, 2008, Book. “This comprehensive introduction to economic growth presents the main facts and puzzles about growth, proposes simple methods and models needed to explain these facts, acquaints the reader with the most recent theoretical and empirical developments, and provides tools with which to analyze policy design. The treatment of growth theory is fully accessible to students with a background no more advanced than elementary calculus and probability theory…” Link

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In search of the chains that hold Brazil back

In search of the chains that hold Brazil back, Ricardo Hausmann, September 2008, Paper, This paper performs a Growth Diagnostic for Brazil. It shows that many aspects of the Brazilian economy have been improving including the macro picture, educational progress and the external front. Moreover, Brazil has many productive possibilities and high-return investments. Yet growth is hampered because of a relatively old-fashioned problem that has been solved in many other countries in the region: creating a financially viable state that does not over-borrow, over-tax or under-invest. We show that domestic saving is the binding constraint on growth and that it has a fiscal cause. Although things are trending in the right direction, the challenge is to exploit the current good times to create the fiscal basis for a sustained growth acceleration. Link

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Achieving Export-Led Growth in Colombia

Achieving Export-Led Growth in Colombia, Ricardo Hausmann, September 1, 2008, Paper, The purpose of this paper is to analyze Colombia’s experiences with and opportunities for export led growth. We first review Colombia’s growth and export performance over the past 30 years and find that the country is indeed facing an export challenge. We then go on to develop new metrics and apply them to Colombia’s export challenge. Link

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Examining Beneficiation

Examining Beneficiation, Ricardo Hausmann, Robert Lawrence, May 2008, Paper, Beneficiation, moving downstream, and promoting greater value added in natural resources are very common policy initiatives to stimulate new export sectors in developing countries, largely based on the premise that this is a natural and logical path for structural transformation. But upon closer examination, we find that very few countries that export raw materials also export their processed forms, or transition to greater processing. Link

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