Found 742 article(s) in category 'Regulation'

Recovering the Logic of Double Effect for Business: Intentions, Proportionality, and Impermissible Harms

Recovering the Logic of Double Effect for Business: Intentions, Proportionality, and Impermissible Harms. Nien-hê Hsieh, 2020, Paper, “Business actors often act in ways that may harm other parties. While the law aims to restrict harmful behavior and to provide remedies, legal systems do not anticipate all contingencies and legal regulations are not always well-enforced. This article argues that the logic of double effect (LDE), which has been developed and deployed in other areas of practical ethics, can be useful in helping business actors decide whether or not to pursue potentially harmful activities in commonplace business activity. The article illustrates how LDE helps to explain the exploitative nature of payday lending, the distinction between permissible and impermissible forms of market competition, and the potential wrong of imposing risk of harm on others. The article also addresses foundational debates about LDE itself. We offer the article as an illustration of the sort of “midlevel” theorizing that can address directly the needs of practitioners.Link

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The Best Tool to Fight Climate Change

The Best Tool to Fight Climate Change. Jeffrey Frankel, January 20, 2020, Opinion, “If they are serious about tackling climate change, governments must quickly establish the expectation that the price of carbon will follow a generally rising path in the future. Lofty statements from public officials and optimal calculations from climate modelers will not do the job.Link

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Insights from Transparency and Accountability Action Plans in Indonesia and Tanzania

Insights from Transparency and Accountability Action Plans in Indonesia and Tanzania. Archon Fung, Stephen Kosack, Dan Levy, January 2020, Paper, “This paper provides insight into community designed and led actions in Indonesia and Tanzania that were prompted by Transparency for Development (T4D), a six-year research project that explores whether, how, and in what conditions “transparency and accountability” or “social accountability” programs improve maternal and newborn health care. We find that all communities participating in the T4D program planned social actions, with the vast majority completing at least one action. We also find that the focus of the actions was diverse in nature, though participants in nearly every community planned at least one action aimed at educating members of the community. We compare actions designed in Indonesia to those in Tanzania and find a number of similarities and differences in the types of actions designed and whether the actions were completed. When analyzed from a social accountability lens, we find three trends. Firstly, the actions were overwhelmingly collaborative in nature. Secondly, the majority of the actions were short route, meaning they targeted the health facility or provider directly, rather than government officials higher up the accountability chain. Finally, when classified by accountability “type” we find that more than half of communities took a self-help approach, with only about a quarter pursuing solutions through social accountability channels.Link

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Looking Back at Fifty Years of the Clean Air Act

Looking Back at Fifty Years of the Clean Air Act. Joseph Aldy, January 2020, Paper, “Since 1970, transportation, power generation, and manufacturing have dramatically transformed as air pollutant emissions have fallen significantly. To evaluate the causal impacts of the Clean Air Act on these changes, we synthesize and review retrospective analyses of air quality regulations. The geographic heterogeneity in regulatory stringency common to many regulations has important implications for emissions, public health, compliance costs, and employment. Cap-and-trade programs have delivered greater emission reductions at lower cost than conventional regulatory mandates, but policy practice has fallen short of the cost-effective ideal. Implementing regulations in imperfectly competitive markets have also influenced the Clean Air Act’s benefits and costs.Link

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The Dilemma of Gender Equality: How Labor Market Regulation Divides Women by Class

The Dilemma of Gender Equality: How Labor Market Regulation Divides Women by Class. Torben Iversen, 2019, Paper, “Women shoulder a heavier burden of family work than men in modern society, preventing them from matching male success in the external labor market. Limiting working hours is a plausible way to level the playing field by creating the possibility of less gendered roles for both sexes. But why then are heavily regulated European labor markets associated with a smaller share of women in top management positions compared with liberal market economies such as in the United States? We explain this puzzle with reference to the difficulty of ambitious women to signal their commitment to high-powered careers in regulated markets.Link

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Strategies for managing the privacy landscape

Strategies for managing the privacy landscape. Ramon Casadesus-Masanell, 2019, Paper, “Firms use consumer personal information to improve their products and services. Personal information is open to misuse, however, and when exploited for undesired or unexpected purposes reduces consumer’s trust in the firm and their willingness to provide personal information. How should firms manage consumer privacy? We present a framework to help firms identify their privacy impact on consumers and respond appropriately. We argue that firms should consider the full spectrum of entities they interact with and which can exploit consumer personal information, which includes: the political environment (government), the security environment (hackers), the market environment (third party firms), and the social environment (peers). Firms should pursue strategies to maximize the privacy impact consumers derive across these domains, augmenting sources of positive impact and mitigating those that generate negative impact. Successful strategies for managing privacy combine four approaches: balanced cooperation with government, heightened security against hackers, limited disclosure to third party firms, and moderated propagation with peers.Link

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Carbon Tax Review and Updating: Institutionalizing an Act-Learn-Act Approach to U.S. Climate Policy

Carbon Tax Review and Updating: Institutionalizing an Act-Learn-Act Approach to U.S. Climate Policy. Joseph Aldy, 2019, Paper, “The design of climate change policy faces the challenge of several key uncertainties. First, the potential benefits of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are characterized by an array of uncertainties related to long-term economic growth, climate sensitivity, the effectiveness of emissions mitigation policy, and the climate risk mitigation actions undertaken through adaptation and geoengineering (Interagency Working Group on the Social Cost of Carbon 2010; Greenstone, Kopits, and Wolverton 2013; Aldy 2015; Taylor 2015). Second, the potential costs of reducing emissions are characterized by uncertainties about the relative costs of low-carbon and carbon-intensive energy sources, technological innovation, consumer responsiveness to energy price changes, as well as the cost-effectiveness of policy design (Aldy et al. 2010). Third, the distributional consequences of climate change and climate policy responses are also characterized by uncertainty (Burtraw, Sweeney, and Walls 2009; Metcalf 2009; Rausch et al 2011; Carleton et al. 2018). Finally, the competitiveness impacts of emissions mitigation policy are uncertain and may vary with the relative stringency of policies around the world, transportation costs, and the energy intensity of manufacturing (Ederington, Levinson, and Minier 2005; Aldyand Pizer 2015; Aldy2017b).Link

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Predicting mid-life capital formation with preschool delay of gratification and life-course measures of self-regulation

Predicting mid-life capital formation with preschool delay of gratification and life-course measures of self-regulation. David Laibson, 2019, Paper, “How well do pre-school delay of gratification and life-course measures of self-regulation predict mid-life capital formation? We surveyed 113 participants of the 1967–1973 Bing pre-school studies on delay of gratification when they were in their…Link

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When waste pays: Inefficient (but seemingly fair) resource allocators receive social and economic rewards

When waste pays: Inefficient (but seemingly fair) resource allocators receive social and economic rewards. Christopher Robichaud, Jennifer Lerner, 2019, Paper, “The tension between equality and efficiency presents a cardinal trade-off in scarce resource allocation decisions. Three pre-registered experiments (N=1,095) and an independent replication (N=300) drew on the revised value pluralism model (Tetlock, Peterson, & Lerner, 1996) to predict how decision makers resolve such trade-offs. Studies 1-2 found that social observation by non-stakeholders increased allocators’ preferences for equal (yet inefficient) allocations – a finding that held even with real money and even when the efficient allocation made one party better off and no one worse off. Study 3 found that allocators who made inefficient choices received positive evaluations and monetary rewards from observers. Analyses also examined the boundary conditions for such benefits and the underlying mechanisms. Taken together, the results elucidate causal mechanisms for a fact of political life: Decision makers who make equal rather than efficient allocations can, by virtue of doing so, receive greater financial and social rewards from observers.Link

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