Found 643 article(s) in category 'Regulation'

Debunking myth: economic values in the Arab World through the prism of opinion polls

Debunking myth: economic values in the Arab World through the prism of opinion polls. Ishac Diwan, June 2018, Paper, “Using World Value Survey opinion poll data, we empirically characterize the economic values and norms held by individuals in the Arab world, in comparison to values held in the rest of the world. We find that, contrary to some common beliefs, there are many values that predispose citizens of Arab countries to be part of a market economy, including a high level of work ethics, comfort with competition and the work of markets, and a high level of economic motivation.Link

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Knowledge integrators and the survival of manufacturing clusters

Knowledge integrators and the survival of manufacturing clusters. Gary Pisano, June 26, 2018, Paper, “Over the past two decades, the greater prevalence of global supply chains has had contrasting effects on Western manufacturing clusters. While some of them dwindled, others proved resilient. Contributing to the recent literature on co-located clusters and clusters’ linkages, we focus on the impact of lead firms’ strategies on the competitiveness of a pair of ‘twin’ clusters located in Northeast Italy. Our findings suggest that production remains ‘sticky’ when leading firms pursue ‘process-embedded’ innovation by integrating global market and local technical knowledge. We refer to this type of firm as a Knowledge Integrator and discuss how its strategy supports the competitiveness of localized suppliers.Link

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The Agency Costs of Controlling Shareholders

The Agency Costs of Controlling Shareholders. Lucian Bebchuk, 2018, Paper, “Economists, legal scholars and courts focus on the wedge between controllers’ cash flow and voting rights as perhaps the most important source of agency costs. In this Paper, however, we argue that another important source of agency costs is the nature and scale of other businesses owned by the controlling shareholder. Controllers’ ownership of other businesses—especially in related industries— provides them with opportunities and motive to divert value from one business to another…Link

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Things Invisible To See: State Action & Private Property

Things Invisible To See: State Action & Private Property. Joseph William Singer, June 2018, Paper, “This Article revisits the state action doctrine, a judicial invention that shields “private” or “non-governmental” discrimination from constitutional scrutiny. Traditionally, this doctrine has applied to discrimination even in places of public accommodation, like restaurants, hotels, and grocery stores. Born of overt racial discrimination, the doctrine has inflicted substantial injustice throughout its inglorious history, and courts have continuously struggled in vain to coherently apply the doctrine.Link

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Heuristics and Public Policy: Decision Making Under Bounded Rationality

Heuristics and Public Policy: Decision Making Under Bounded Rationality. Cass Sunstein, June 18, 2018, Paper, “How do human beings make decisions when, as the evidence indicates, the assumptions of the Bayesian rationality approach in economics do not hold? Do human beings optimize, or can they? Several decades of research have shown that people possess a toolkit of heuristics to make decisions under certainty, risk, subjective uncertainty, and true uncertainty (or Knightian uncertainty). We outline recent advances in knowledge about the use of heuristics and departures from Bayesian rationality, with particular emphasis on growing formalization of those departures, which add necessary precision.” Link

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Tyler Cowen and Amitabh Chandra on economics of health care

Tyler Cowen and Amitabh Chandra on economics of health care. Amitabh Chandra, June 12, 2018, Audio, “Two prominent economists share their views on the politics, economics and ethics of health care reform. Tyler Cowen is professor of economics at George Mason University and the Center for the Study of Public Choice and has earned numerous accolades, including being named a Top 100 Global Thinker by Foreign Policy. He is also one of The Economist’s most influential economists of the decade.Link

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A Breath of Bad Air: Cost of the Trump Environmental Agenda May Lead to 80 000 Extra Deaths per Decade

A Breath of Bad Air: Cost of the Trump Environmental Agenda May Lead to 80 000 Extra Deaths per Decade. David Cutler, Francesca Dominici, June 12, 2018, Paper, “President Donald Trump and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Scott Pruitt have pledged to reexamine landmark environmental policies and to repeal regulations. In their view, excessive regulations are harming US industry, and thus reducing regulation will be good for business. As Donald Trump has said, seemingly without irony, “We are going to get rid of the regulations that are just destroying us. You can’t breathe—you cannot breathe.”” Link

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The Persistence of Colonial Laws: Why Rwanda is Ready to Remove Outdated Legal Barriers to Health, Human Rights, and Development

The Persistence of Colonial Laws: Why Rwanda is Ready to Remove Outdated Legal Barriers to Health, Human Rights, and Development. Richard Freeman, Agnes Binagwaho, June 10, 2018, Paper, “Rwanda has earned a reputation as a trailblazer among developing nations. Especially in the health sector, it is often the early-adopter of international recommendations and new technologies. Yet at times, Rwanda’s momentum is impeded when it must grapple with a challenge that post-colonial societies commonly face: the persistence of colonial laws. When left in force, these legal vestiges, once designed to oppress and subordinate, can rear their head at unexpected moments, causing delays in policy implementation, uncertainty, or unjust outcomes.Link

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CSR Needs CPR: Corporate Sustainability and Politics

CSR Needs CPR: Corporate Sustainability and Politics. Michael Toffel, June 6, 2018, Paper, “Corporate sustainability has gone mainstream, and many companies have taken meaningful steps to improve their own environmental performance. But while corporate political actions such as lobbying can have a greater impact on environmental quality, they are ignored in most current sustainability metrics. It is time for these metrics to be expanded to critically assess firms based on the sustainability impacts of their public policy positions. To enable such assessments, firms must become as transparent about their corporate political responsibility (CPR) as their corporate social responsibility (CSR). For their part, rating systems must demand such information from firms and include evaluations of corporate political activity in their assessments of corporate environmental responsibility.Link

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