Found 315 article(s) in category 'Jobs and Unemployment'

A Short-term Intervention for Long-term Fairness in the Labor Market

A Short-term Intervention for Long-term Fairness in the Labor Market. Lily Hu, Yiling Chen, November 30, 2017, Paper, “The persistence of racial inequality in the U.S. labor market against a general backdrop of formal equality of opportunity is a troubling phenomenon that has significant ramifications on the design of hiring policies. In this paper, we show that current group disparate outcomes may be immovable even when hiring decisions are bound by an input-output notion of “individual fairness.” Instead, we construct a dynamic reputational model of the labor market that illustrates the reinforcing nature of asymmetric outcomes resulting from groups’ divergent access to resources and as a result, investment choices…Link

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The Elusive Promise of Structural Reform

The Elusive Promise of Structural Reform. Dani Rodrik, November 28, 2017, Book Chapter, “This Chapter reconsiders the notion of and rationale for ‘structural reforms.’ Structural reforms are changes in labor and product markets as well as wider institutional changes that aim to increase the efficiency with which labor and capital are allocated in the economy, ensuring that these resources go where their contribution to national income is largest. If successful, such changes promote productivity, investment, and growth. Structural reforms are often part of the conditionality accompanying financial assistance, and the assistance offered to Greece since 2010 is no exception…Link

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Productivity and Pay: is the link broken?

Productivity and Pay: is the link broken? Lawrence Summers, November 2017, Paper, “After growing in tandem for nearly 30 years after the second world war, since 1973 an increasing gap has opened between the compensation of the average American worker and her/his average labor productivity. Brynjolffson and McAfee (2014) use the phrase “the great decoupling” to describe this phenomenon; Bivens and Mishel (2015) refer to it as a “historic divergence”. In recent years discussion has centered on understanding why this phenomenon has occurred and how policy should respond.Link

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The Rise of In-and-Outs: Declining Labor Force Participation of Prime Age Men

The Rise of In-and-Outs: Declining Labor Force Participation of Prime Age Men. John Coglianese, November 15, 2017, Paper, “This paper documents that much of the decline in labor force participation of U.S. prime age men comes from “in-and-outs”—who I define as men who temporarily leave the labor force. Individuals moving in and out of the labor force have been an understudied margin of labor supply but account for roughly one third of the decline in participation between 1977 and 2015. Most in-and-outs take an occasional short break in between jobs but are otherwise attached to the labor force. Examining explanations for the rise of in-and-outs, I find that half of the rise has come from married or cohabiting men, and I show that this portion of the increase can be explained by a wealth effect from their partners’ growing earnings, using variation in the growth of female wages across demographic groups.Link

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Recent US Manufacturing Employment: The Exception that Proves the Rule

Recent US Manufacturing Employment: The Exception that Proves the Rule. Robert Lawrence, November 2017, Paper, “This Working Paper challenges two widely held views: first that trade performance has been the primary reason for the declining share of manufacturing employment in the United States, and second that recent productivity growth in manufacturing has actually been quite rapid but is not accurately measured. The paper shows that for many decades, faster productivity growth interacting with unresponsive demand has been the dominant force behind the declining share of employment in manufacturing in the United States and other industrial economies. It also shows that since 2010, however, the relationship has been reversed and slower productivity growth in manufacturing has been associated with more robust performance in manufacturing employment.” Link

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The Productivity Slowdown and Labour’s Income Share

The Productivity Slowdown and Labour’s Income Share. Elhanan Helpman, November 11, 2017, Paper, “Many countries have experienced both a slowdown in aggregate productivity growth and a decline in labour’s share of national income in recent years. This column argues that the productivity slowdown may have caused the decline in labour’s income. Calibrating the authors’ model to US data suggests that a one percentage point decline in the productivity growth rate accounts for between half and all of the observed decline in the US labour share.Link

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How to Win the Battle of the Sexes Over Pay (Hint: It Isn’t Simple.)

How to Win the Battle of the Sexes Over Pay (Hint: It Isn’t Simple.). Claudia Goldin, November 10, 2017, Opinion, “When Billie Jean King won the United States Open singles tennis title in 1972, her reward was a meager $10,000. Ilie Năstase, her male counterpart, won $25,000. Ms. King fought hard for equal rights and, on the tennis court, she won. By 1973, men and women received the same prizes at the Open. That still can’t be said of all tennis tournaments, but despite some ill-natured male grousing recently, equal pay is still the rule at the United States Open, at least.Link

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The IMF, Gender Equality and Labour

The IMF, Gender Equality and Labour. Martha Chen, October 2017, Book, “Recent research from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) recognizes that macroeconomic policies can help to redress gender inequalities by creating more fiscal space for key public investments in infrastructure, education and health. Such investments reduce the time women spend on domestic chores and caring for their families, giving them more opportunities to engage in paid work. For women home-based workers, who produce goods and services from their own homes, basic infrastructure services make their homes more productive workplaces.” Link

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Building Emergency Savings Through Employer-Sponsored Rainy Day Savings Accounts

Building Emergency Savings Through Employer-Sponsored Rainy Day Savings Accounts. John Beshears, David Laibson, October 2017, Paper, “Many Americans live paycheck to paycheck, carry revolving credit balances, and have little liquidity to absorb financial shocks (Angeletos et al. 2001; Kaplan and Violante 2014). One consequence of this financial vulnerability is that many individuals use a portion of their retirement savings during their working years. For every $1 that flows into 401(k)s and similar accounts, between 30¢ and 40¢ leaks out before retirement (Argento, Bryant, and Sabelhaus 2015). We explore the practical considerations and challenges of helping households accumulate liquid savings that can be deployed when urgent pre-retirement needs arise. We believe that this can be achieved cost effectively by automatically enrolling workers into an employer-sponsored payroll deduction “rainy day” or “emergency” savings account, and present three specific implementation options.Link

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Tackling ‘the Thin File’ That Can Prevent a Promotion

Tackling ‘the Thin File’ That Can Prevent a Promotion. Iris Bohnet, October 3, 2017, Opinion, “Recently, I have worked with a number of professional services firms committed to equality, diversity and inclusion. Many offer diversity training and leadership development programs, and many support affinity groups for traditionally underrepresented groups.  However, none has been able to crack what sometimes feels like a code set in stone: significantly increased diversity at the entry level, but very little change at the top.Link

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