Found 415 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

Examining Beneficiation

Examining Beneficiation, Ricardo Hausmann, Robert Lawrence, May 2008, Paper, Beneficiation, moving downstream, and promoting greater value added in natural resources are very common policy initiatives to stimulate new export sectors in developing countries, largely based on the premise that this is a natural and logical path for structural transformation. But upon closer examination, we find that very few countries that export raw materials also export their processed forms, or transition to greater processing. Link

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New Development Economics – We Shall Experiment, but How Shall We Learn?

New Development Economics – We Shall Experiment, but How Shall We Learn? Dani Rodrik, 2008, Book Chapter, “Development economics has long been split between the study of macro-development (economic growth, international trade, and fiscal/macro-policies) and microdevelopment (microfinance, education, health, and other social programs). Even though the central…Link

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Electrochemical Acceleration of Chemical Weathering as an Energetically Feasible Approach to Mitigating Anthropogenic Climate Change

Electrochemical Acceleration of Chemical Weathering as an Energetically Feasible Approach to Mitigating Anthropogenic Climate Change. Michael Aziz, Kurt Zenz House, Daniel Schrag, December 15, 2007, Paper. “We describe an approach to CO… capture and storage from the atmosphere that involves enhancing the solubility of CO… in the ocean by a process equivalent to the natural silicate weathering reaction. HCl is electrochemically removed from the ocean and neutralized through reaction with silicate rocks. The increase in ocean alkalinity resulting from the removal of HCl causes atmospheric CO… to dissolve into the…” Link

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Did the Death of Distance Hurt Detroit and Help New York?

Did the Death of Distance Hurt Detroit and Help New York? Edward Glaeser, Giacomo Ponzetto, December 2007, Paper. “Urban proximity can reduce the costs of shipping goods and speed the flow of ideas. Improvements in communication technology might erode these advantages and allow people and firms to decentralize. However, improvements in transportation and communication technology can also increase the returns to new ideas, by allowing those ideas to be used throughout the world. This paper presents a model that illustrates these two rival effects that technological progress can have on cities…” Link

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Profits and Politics: Coordinating Technology Adoption in Agriculture

Profits and Politics: Coordinating Technology Adoption in Agriculture, Rohini Pande, December 2007, Paper, “This paper examines the political economy of coordination in a simple two- sector model in which individuals’ choice of agricultural technology affects industrialization. We demonstrate the existence of multiple equilibria; the econ- omy is either characterized by the use of a traditional agricultural technology and a low level of industrialization or the use of a mechanized technology and a high level of industrialization. Relative to the traditional technology, the mechanized technology increases output but leaves some population groups worse off. We show that the distributional implications of choosing the mechanized technology restrict the possibility of Pareto-improving coordination by an elected policy-maker, even when we allow for income redistribution.” Link

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Latin America and The World Economy

Latin America and The World Economy. Dale Jorgenson, October 29, 2007, Book Chapter. “This paper analyzes the impact of investment in information technology (IT) on the recent resurgence of growth in Latin America and the world economy. We describe the growth of the world economy, seven regions, including Latin America, and fourteen major economies during the period 1989-2005. We allocate the growth of world output between input growth and productivity and find, surprisingly, that input growth greatly predominates! Moreover, differences in per capita output levels are explained by differences in per capita input, rather than…” Link

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Entrepreneurship and the City

Entrepreneurship and the City. Edward Glaeser, October 2007, Paper. “Why do levels of entrepreneurship differ across America’s cities? This paper presents basic facts on two measures of entrepreneurship: the self-employment rate and the number of small firms. Both of these measures are correlated with urban success, suggesting that more entrepreneurial cities are more successful. There is considerable variation in the self-employment rate across metropolitan areas, but about one-half of this heterogeneity can be explained by demographic and industrial variation. Self-employment is particularly associated with abundant, older…” Link

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The Product Space Conditions in the Development of Nations

The Product Space Conditions in the Development of Nations. Ricardo Hausmann, July 27, 2007, Paper. “Economies grow by upgrading the products they produce and export. The technology, capital, institutions, and skills needed to make newer products are more easily adapted from some products than from others. Here, we study this network of relatedness between products, or “product space,” finding that more-sophisticated products are located in a densely connected core whereas less-sophisticated products occupy a less-connected periphery. Empirically, countries move through the product space by developing goods close to those…” Link

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Structural Transformation in Chile

Structural Transformation in Chile. Ricardo Hausmann, June 2007, Paper. “Chile’s robust economic growth during Latin America’s period of economic stagnation has earned it the reputation of an economic star. However, the impressive growth during the 1980s and 1990s seems to be cooling down. The following figure shows GDP per worker and investment per worker from 1960 to 2004, both of which level off in the late 1990s…” Link

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