Found 415 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

Social entrepreneurship as field encroachment: how a neoliberal social movement constructed a new field

Social entrepreneurship as field encroachment: how a neoliberal social movement constructed a new field. Tamara Kay, Marshall Ganz, May 18, 2019, Paper, “In explaining the emergence of new strategic action fields, in which social movements’ and organizations’ logic, rules and strategies are forged, inter-field dynamics remain under-explored. The case of Social Enterprise and Entrepreneurship (SEE) shows how new fields can emerge through field encroachment, whereby shifts among overlapping fields create structural opportunities for the ascendency of new fields, which may adapt logics borrowed from adjacent fields to construct legitimacy. SEE leveraged the 1980s’ shift between first-order market and state fields to encroach on the political strategies of community organizing, birthing a neoliberal social movement to create a new field addressing social problems using market-based, profit-motivated approaches. With its borrowed veneer of justice, SEE rapidly developed a high academic and public profile over just three decades, despite little evidence its approach to solving social problems works. In encroaching on proven political strategies for solving social problems, it may further undermine democratic practices.Link

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The Case For Breaking Up Big Tech

The Case For Breaking Up Big Tech. Nancy Koehn, May 15, 2015, Audio, “Calls to break up big tech companies like Facebook and Amazon are getting louder. After Sen. Elizabeth Warren called for Facebook, Google and Amazon to be designated as “platform utilities” and broken apart from their own services that compete on those platforms in March, other Democratic candidates for president have ratcheted up their own rhetoric on the issue. Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes himself has called the social network a monopoly that should be forced to shed Instagram and Whatsapp, two major recent acquisitions. Harvard Business School historian Nancy Koehn joined the conversation on Boston Public Radio Wednesday, delving into the history of antitrust law in America, and ultimately agreeing with those calling for breaking up big tech.Link

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Innovation + Disruption Symposium

Innovation + Disruption Symposium. Clayton Christensen, May 2019, Video, “On May 5 in New York City, Colgate University will host Innovation + Disruption, a symposium about technology, the liberal arts, and preparing graduates for the future.  Clayton Christensen, Kim B. Clark professor of business administration at the Harvard Business School and co-founder of the innovation consulting firm Innosight, will tee up the event with a keynote address titled The Innovative University.Link

 

 

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Why investors seem skeptical about the ride-hailing business

Why investors seem skeptical about the ride-hailing business. Mihir Desai, May 10, 2019, Audio, “Uber had its much-anticipated initial public offering Friday — despite losing $1.8 billion over the last 12 months, which makes it the all-time biggest money-losing IPO. The results were less than spectacular: Uber priced its shares toward the low end of estimates at $45 a share. They opened at $42 and closed at $41.55.Link

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The Business of Platforms: Strategy in the Age of Digital Competition, Innovation, and Power

The Business of Platforms: Strategy in the Age of Digital Competition, Innovation, and Power. David Yoffie, 2019, Book, “The Business of Platforms explores the strategic, economic, and technology management challenges of digital platform businesses. We have five major themes in the book: 1) The world’s most valuable companies are all platforms, in part because platforms have network effects, with the potential for a winner-take-all or winner-take-most outcome. 2) Platforms come in 3 flavors: innovation platforms, transaction platforms, and hybrid platforms. We suggest that the world is moving towards more and more hybrids, and we identify the key steps in building a successful platform. 3) Failure is more likely than winner-take-all: mispricing, mistrust, mistiming, and hubris lead to hundreds of failures. 4) Old “dogs” can learn new tricks: conventional companies can adapt to a platform world with a buy, build, or belong strategy. And 5) Platforms are a double-edge sword: abuse of power, bullying poor labor practices, and bad actors can undermine even the most successful platforms. The book concludes with an exploration of platform battles of the future, including voice wars (Alexa vs. Hey Google vs. Siri), ridesharing and autonomous car platforms, quantum computing, and CRISPR.Link

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A study of more than 250 platforms a reveal why most fail

A study of more than 250 platforms a reveal why most fail. David Yoffie, May 2019, Paper, “Platforms have become one of the most important business models of the 21st century. In our newly-published book, we divide all platforms into two types: Innovation platforms enable third-party firms to add complementary products and services to a core product or technology. Prominent examples include Google Android and Apple iPhone operating systems as well as Amazon Web Services. The other type, transaction platforms, enable the exchange of information, goods, or services. Examples include Amazon Marketplace, Airbnb, or Uber.Link

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Do Tax Cuts Produce more Einsteins? The Impacts of Financial Incentives Versus Exposure to Innovation on the Supply of Inventors

Do Tax Cuts Produce more Einsteins? The Impacts of Financial Incentives Versus Exposure to Innovation on the Supply of Inventors. Raj Chetty, April 12, 2019, Paper, “Many countries provide financial incentives to spur innovation, ranging from tax incentives to research and development grants. In this paper, we study how such financial incentives affect individuals’ decisions to pursue careers in innovation. We first present empirical evidence on inventors’ career trajectories and income distributions using deidentified data on 1.2 million inventors from patent records linked to tax records in the United States. We find that the private returns to innovation are extremely skewed—with the top 1% of inventors collecting more than 22% of total inventors’ income—and are highly correlated with their social impact, as measured by citations. Inventors tend to have their most impactful innovations around age 40 and their incomes rise rapidly just before they have high-impact patents. We then build a stylized model of inventor career choice that matches these facts as well as recent evidence that childhood exposure to innovation plays a critical role in determining whether individuals become inventors. The model predicts that financial incentives, such as top income tax reductions, have limited potential to increase aggregate innovation because they only affect individuals who are exposed to innovation and have essentially no impact on the decisions of star inventors, who matter most for aggregate innovation.Link

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The Spatial Mismatch Between Innovation and Joblessness

The Spatial Mismatch Between Innovation and Joblessness. Edward Glaeser, April 9, 2019, Paper, “American technological creativity is geographically concentrated in areas that are generally distant from the country’s most persistent pockets of joblessness. Should innovation policy attempt to engender more innovation is distressed areas? The primarily inventive parts of innovation policy, such as N.I.H. grants, can aid underperforming areas, possibly through health improvements that reduce the share of people on Disability Insurance, without any spatial reallocation. Moreover, since research funding is presumably already designed to maximize knowledge production, spatial reallocation may come at a considerable cost. The educational aspects of innovation policy, such as Pell Grants, work-study and Federal overhead reimbursement on grants, can reflect regional realities better and do more to encourage employment in distressed areas. Lifting the cap on H1B visas in poorer places can also enhance local human capital. Finally, there is particular scope for geographically targeted entrepreneurship policy, such as eliminating the barriers to new business formation near universities and in distressed places. Spatially targeted employment subsidies can also encourage more labor-intensive innovation in depressed areas.Link

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