Found 408 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

A study of more than 250 platforms a reveal why most fail

A study of more than 250 platforms a reveal why most fail. David Yoffie, May 2019, Paper, “Platforms have become one of the most important business models of the 21st century. In our newly-published book, we divide all platforms into two types: Innovation platforms enable third-party firms to add complementary products and services to a core product or technology. Prominent examples include Google Android and Apple iPhone operating systems as well as Amazon Web Services. The other type, transaction platforms, enable the exchange of information, goods, or services. Examples include Amazon Marketplace, Airbnb, or Uber.Link

Tags: , , , ,

Do Tax Cuts Produce more Einsteins? The Impacts of Financial Incentives Versus Exposure to Innovation on the Supply of Inventors

Do Tax Cuts Produce more Einsteins? The Impacts of Financial Incentives Versus Exposure to Innovation on the Supply of Inventors. Raj Chetty, April 12, 2019, Paper, “Many countries provide financial incentives to spur innovation, ranging from tax incentives to research and development grants. In this paper, we study how such financial incentives affect individuals’ decisions to pursue careers in innovation. We first present empirical evidence on inventors’ career trajectories and income distributions using deidentified data on 1.2 million inventors from patent records linked to tax records in the United States. We find that the private returns to innovation are extremely skewed—with the top 1% of inventors collecting more than 22% of total inventors’ income—and are highly correlated with their social impact, as measured by citations. Inventors tend to have their most impactful innovations around age 40 and their incomes rise rapidly just before they have high-impact patents. We then build a stylized model of inventor career choice that matches these facts as well as recent evidence that childhood exposure to innovation plays a critical role in determining whether individuals become inventors. The model predicts that financial incentives, such as top income tax reductions, have limited potential to increase aggregate innovation because they only affect individuals who are exposed to innovation and have essentially no impact on the decisions of star inventors, who matter most for aggregate innovation.Link

Tags: , , , ,

The Spatial Mismatch Between Innovation and Joblessness

The Spatial Mismatch Between Innovation and Joblessness. Edward Glaeser, April 9, 2019, Paper, “American technological creativity is geographically concentrated in areas that are generally distant from the country’s most persistent pockets of joblessness. Should innovation policy attempt to engender more innovation is distressed areas? The primarily inventive parts of innovation policy, such as N.I.H. grants, can aid underperforming areas, possibly through health improvements that reduce the share of people on Disability Insurance, without any spatial reallocation. Moreover, since research funding is presumably already designed to maximize knowledge production, spatial reallocation may come at a considerable cost. The educational aspects of innovation policy, such as Pell Grants, work-study and Federal overhead reimbursement on grants, can reflect regional realities better and do more to encourage employment in distressed areas. Lifting the cap on H1B visas in poorer places can also enhance local human capital. Finally, there is particular scope for geographically targeted entrepreneurship policy, such as eliminating the barriers to new business formation near universities and in distressed places. Spatially targeted employment subsidies can also encourage more labor-intensive innovation in depressed areas.Link

Tags: , , , ,

Innovation, competition and sectoral evolution: an introduction to the special section on Industrial Dynamics

Innovation, competition and sectoral evolution: an introduction to the special section on Industrial Dynamics. Gary Pisano, March 29, 2019, Paper, “This paper is the introduction to the ICC special section on Industrial Dynamics. Industrial dynamics has a venerable heritage in economics and after a long dormant period, it has witnessed a major resurgence beginning in the early 1980s. The current Special Section takes stock of the progress along this new and rich intellectual journey. This Introduction does not aim to present a review of the accomplishments reached in the last period. Rather, it reflects on the broad themes characterizing our progress in understanding industry evolution and industrial dynamics.Link

Tags: , , ,

What’s Really Driving Disruption (It’s Not Technology)

What’s Really Driving Disruption (It’s Not Technology). Thales Teixeira, March 28, 2019, Audio, “The emergence of a new technology is often cited as what drives the disruption of an industry or business. But that’s not true in most cases, according to Harvard Business School professor Thales Teixeira. Instead, startups disrupt established companies by decoupling the customer value chain — picking one aspect of the business and doing it better than the incumbent.Link

Tags: , , , ,

The Art of Governing Through Questions

The Art of Governing Through Questions. Jorrit de Jong, Jack Goldsmith, March 25, 2019, Opinion, “When citizens ask mayors questions, they expect answers. Elected officials, in turn, want to be seen as strong leaders who are quick with solutions. Mayors are also tasked with putting out fires, both figuratively and literally, that directly affect the lives of their citizens.Link

Tags: , , , ,

The Case for a Bold Economics

The Case for a Bold Economics. Dani Rodrik, March 11, 2019, Opinion, “Although economists are well positioned to imagine new institutional arrangements, their habit of thinking at the margin and sticking close to the evidence at hand encourages an aversion to radical change. But, when presented with new challenges, economists must envision new solutions – as a new group is determined to do.Link

Tags: , , , ,

What Green New Deal advocates can learn from the 2009 economic stimulus act

What Green New Deal advocates can learn from the 2009 economic stimulus act. Joseph Aldy, February 15, 2019, Opinion, “Congressional Democrats have introduced a “Green New Deal” proposal that calls for a 10-year national mobilization to curb climate change by shifting the U.S. economy away from fossil fuels. Many progressives support this idea, while skeptics argue that a decade is not long enough to remake our nation’s energy system.Link

Tags: , , , , ,

Unlocking the Customer Value Chain

Unlocking the Customer Value Chain. Thales Teixeira, February 2019, Book, “Based on eight years of research visiting dozens of startups, tech companies and incumbents, Harvard Business School professor Thales Teixeira shows how and why consumer industries are disrupted, and what established companies can do about it—while highlighting the specific strategies potential startups use to gain a competitive edge.  There is a pattern to digital disruption in an industry, whether the disruptor is Uber, Airbnb, Dollar Shave Club, Pillpack or one of countless other startups that have stolen large portions of market share from industry leaders, often in a matter of a few years.Link

Tags: , , ,

Tarun Khanna Talks Trust with Knowledge@Wharton

Tarun Khanna Talks Trust with Knowledge@Wharton. Tarun Khanna, February 14, 2019, Audio, “In his book, Professor Khanna discusses the inherent trust that comes with the established customs and institutions of the developed world — through contracts, regulatory bodies, and so on — but this practice is seen less in the developing world. As a result, entrepreneurs looking to work in the developing world must first build a basis of trust with the individuals they’ll be working with if they want to be successful.” Link

Tags: , , , , ,