Found 438 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

Into the Fray: Adaptive Approaches to Studying Novel Teamwork Forms

Into the Fray: Adaptive Approaches to Studying Novel Teamwork Forms. Amy Edmondson, 2020, Paper, “Novel forms of teamwork—created by rapid change and growing diversity among collaborators—are increasingly common, and they present substantial methodological challenges for research. We highlight two aspects of new team forms that challenge conventional methods. Factors pertaining to change (e.g., in membership) create entitativity challenges such as whom to count as team members, while factors pertaining to difference (e.g., in expertise) create concordance challenges such as how to interpret disagreement in groups. We review research methods that are well suited to each of these specific challenges. We identify the particular challenges of studying teams that exhibit high difference and change simultaneously and call for adaptive methods that enable insight into how they work. Clarity about the dimensions of deviation from ideal team forms, along with shared terminology, will help researchers make and discuss tough methodological choices and assist reviewers in evaluating them.Link

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Association of the Meaningful Use Electronic Health Record Incentive Program With Health Information Technology Venture Capital Funding

Association of the Meaningful Use Electronic Health Record Incentive Program With Health Information Technology Venture Capital Funding. Ariel Dora Stern, March 23, 2020, Paper, “Although the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act has accelerated electronic health record (EHR) adoption since its passage, clinician satisfaction with EHRs remains low, and the association of HITECH with health care information technology (IT) entrepreneurship has remained largely unstudied.Link

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Dan Levy on Data-Driven Policy Making, Machine Learning and Human Judgment, and the Future of Higher Education in the Age of Technology

Dan Levy on Data-Driven Policy Making, Machine Learning and Human Judgment, and the Future of Higher Education in the Age of Technology March 2020. GrowthPolicy’s Devjani Roy interviewed Dan Levy, Senior Lecturer in Public Policy at Harvard Kennedy School and Faculty Director of Harvard Kennedy School’s Public Leadership Credential, on data-driven policy making, machine learning […]

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Electricity Market Design and Green Energy

Electricity Market Design and Green Energy. William Hogan, March 13, 2020, Paper, “An efficient short-run electricity market determines a market clearing price based on conditions of supply and demand balanced in an economic dispatch. Everyone pays or is paid the same price. The thought experiment of a no-carbon/zero-variable-cost, green energy supply reveals that the basic efficiency principles still apply. The same principles apply in an electric network.Link

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Harvard’s Ken Rogoff: Coronavirus Shows We Need Both Healthcare Safety Net and Private Innovation

Harvard’s Ken Rogoff: Coronavirus Shows We Need Both Healthcare Safety Net and Private Innovation. Kenneth Rogoff, March 8, 2020, Audio, “Pollak asked what economic lessons can be learned from the ongoing coronavirus spread. “There is certainly a lesson for having a safety net so that so that if you’re facing a pandemic, you could treat everyone and really have a framework [so] people aren’t afraid to come in and you can treat everyone,” replied Rogoff. Government healthcare policy must be balanced with free-market forces, added Rogoff. “The whole world depends on the United States for the innovation in drugs and health care, and there’s a very good chance that the vaccine’s going to come from here because we have this very developed private sector, and the question is how to have a system that has both.”Link

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Technology for All

Technology for All. Dani Rodrik, March 6, 2020, Opinion, “Technological change does not follow its own direction, but rather is shaped by moral frames, incentives, and power. If we think more about how innovation can be directed to serve society, we can afford to worry less about how we should adjust to it.Link

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Shaping Nascent Industries: Innovation Strategy and Regulatory Uncertainty in Personal Genomics

Shaping Nascent Industries: Innovation Strategy and Regulatory Uncertainty in Personal Genomics. Rory McDonald, 2020, Paper, “In nascent industries―whose new technologies are often poorly understood by regulators― contending with regulatory uncertainty can be crucial to organizational survival and growth. Prior research on nonmarket strategy largely focuses on established firms in mature industries, though such strategies are apt to differ for new ventures with limited resources and market power, operating in novel domains where the rules of the game are underdeveloped. How do ventures navigate regulatory uncertainty? To explore this question, we conduct an inductive multi-case research study in the nascent personal-genomics industry. Drawing on 86 interviews and extensive archival and qualitative data, we develop a theoretical framework that elucidates how ventures navigate regulatory uncertainty―specifying the range, content, and sequence of actions that ventures take to manage this uncertainty. The framework, organized around the sequential processes of anticipating, reacting to, and shaping regulations, introduces a novel logic of interaction—regulatory co-creation—that ventures can employ to shape emerging regulations. Taken together, our theory and findings challenge existing perspectives on strategy in nascent markets, and shed new light on the dynamic interplay between ventures and regulators during the emergence of new technology industries.Link

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The State of Access in Cities: Theory and Practice

The State of Access in Cities: Theory and Practice. Jorrit de Jong, March 3, 2020, Book Chapter, “This chapter presents a framework to analyze access to rights and services in urban settings. Following De Jong and Rizvi’s (2008) definition of access as the match between societal commitment and institutional capacity to deliver rights and services and people’s capacity to benefit from those rights and services, the chapter examines the different dimensions that underpin access in urban settings. It argues that efforts to deal with the bureaucratic dysfunction that impedes access should be grounded in an approach that looks at context, system, agency and individual levels of analysis. Such conceptual approach highlights the adaptive nature of dealing with bureaucratic dysfunction to enlarge access to urban benefits, putting an emphasis on the role of leadership in innovating to make it possible. The chapter tests these propositions by examining examples of recent innovations to manage bureaucratic dysfunction and associated lack of access from cities across the world. Some lessons are drawn from the analysis: (i) leaders who can articulate the public value proposition, can enable the necessary legitimacy and can build operational capacity are a fundamental pillar of any effort, (ii) focusing in an agency or a narrow set of agencies may leave key stakeholders out, rendering efforts to increase access unsustainable, and (iii) engaging frontline workers has to be a central part of any effort, but it cannot fail to act at the context and societal level, so that the deeper forces inhibiting access to urban benefits are deactivated in the long term.Link

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Illuminating homes with LEDs in India: Rapid market creation towards low-carbon technology transition in a developing country

Illuminating homes with LEDs in India: Rapid market creation towards low-carbon technology transition in a developing country. Venkatesh Narayanamurti, 2020, Paper, “Near-term climate change mitigation calls for technological innovation and widespread implementation of appropriate technologies. This is salient in emerging economies, where impending socio-economic and infrastructural transitions hold immense potential for locking-in low-carbon development pathways. Yet, little is understood about how developing countries can scale appropriate technology transitions, given their often underdeveloped technological innovation capabilities and supporting infrastructures and finances. This paper examines a recent, rapid, and ongoing transition of India’s lighting market to light emitting diode (LED) technology, from a negligible market share to LEDs becoming the dominant lighting products within five years, despite the country’s otherwise limited visibility in the global solid-state lighting industry. Annual sales of LED bulbs grew more than 130 times to over 650 million bulbs between 2014–2018, with over 30 billion kWh of estimated annual energy savings. Focusing on this striking story of technology transition, this paper analyzes India’s LED uptake using semi-structured interviews and drawing on the technology innovation systems literature. The results show that the success of transition coexists with its share of shortfalls, and that there is an important tension between the lowering of upfront costs of low-carbon technologies and the efforts to enhance domestic technological capabilities. The paper discusses the results for the Indian LED case and emphasizes the importance of consistent strategic action taking into account all (and not limited) parts of the technology innovation system, while also providing insights on how mitigation technologies can be developed and deployed in developing countries.Link

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Immigration Policy Levers for US Innovation and Startups

Immigration Policy Levers for US Innovation and Startups. William Kerr, 2020, Book Chapter, “Immigrants account for about a quarter of US invention and entrepreneurship despite a policy environment that is not well suited for these purposes. This chapter reviews the US immigration policy environment that governs how skilled migrants move to America for employment-based purposes. We discuss points of strain in the current system and potential policy reforms that would likely increase the rate of innovation and startups due to immigrants in the country. Key areas include adjustments to the allocation of permanent residency visas, adjustments to the H-1B visa program, and the creation of an immigrant startup visa.Link

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