Found 695 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

Do Rising Top Incomes Lift All Boats?

Do Rising Top Incomes Lift All Boats? Daniel Andrews, Christopher Jencks, Andrew Leigh. June 15, 2009, Paper. “Pooling data for 1905 to 2000, we find no systematic relationship between top income shares and economic growth in a panel of 12 developed nations observed for between 22 and 85 years. After 1960, however, a one percentage point rise in the top decile’s income share is associated with a statistically significant 0.12 point rise in GDP growth during the following year…” Link

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The Wealth of Cities: Agglomeration Economies and Spatial Equilibrium in the United States

The Wealth of Cities: Agglomeration Economies and Spatial Equilibrium in the United States. Edward Glaeser, March 2009, Paper. “Empirical research on cities starts with a spatial equilibrium condition: workers and firms are assumed to be indifferent across space. This condition implies that research on cities is different from research on countries, and that work on places within countries needs to consider population, income and housing prices simultaneously. Housing supply elasticity will determine whether urban success shows up in more people or higher incomes. Urban economists generally…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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The Causal Impact of Education on Economic Growth: Evidence from U.S.

The Causal Impact of Education on Economic Growth: Evidence from U.S. Philippe Aghion, March 2009, Paper. “Should countries or regions (generically, “states”) invest more in education to promote economic growth? Policy makers often assert that if their state spends more on educating its population, incomes will grow sufficiently to more than recover the investment. Economists and others have proposed many channels through which education may affect growth–not merely the private returns to individuals’ greater human capital but also a variety of externalities…” Link

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Can political affirmative action for women reduce gender bias?

Can political affirmative action for women reduce gender bias? Rohini Pande, January 8, 2009, Article. ““While women have the legal right to equal participation in politics in almost every country around the world, they remain vastly underrepresented in local and national politics. As of July 2006, women accounted for only 17% of parliamentarians worldwide, and a woman headed the government in only seven countries (UNICEF, 2007). These numbers vary dramatically by region. In 2004, the highest share of female parliamentarians was found in the Nordic countries (39.7%), while the lowest was in the Arab States (6%)…” Link

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The Global Gender Gap Report 2009

The Global Gender Gap Report 2009. Ricardo Hausmann, 2009, Paper. “Over the last year, the world has seen the biggest recession in almost a century. It is clear that recovery will require, among other things, the best of talent, ideas and innovation. It is therefore more important now than ever before for countries and companies to pay heed to one of the fundamental cornerstones of economic growth available to them—the skills and talent of their female human resource pool. As consumers, voters, employees and employers, women will be integral…” Link

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Preferences for Redistribution

Preferences for Redistribution. Alberto Alesina, January 2009, Paper. “This paper discusses what determines the preferences of individuals for redistribution. We review the theoretical literature and provide a framework to incorporate various effects previously studied separately in the literature. We then examine empirical evidence for the US, using the General Social Survey, and for a large set of countries, using the World Values Survey. The paper reviews previously found results and provides several new ones…” Link

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Dynamics of the Gender Gap for Young Professionals in the Corporate and Financial Sectors

Dynamics of the Gender Gap for Young Professionals in the Corporate and Financial Sectors. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence Katz, January 2009, Paper. “This paper assesses the relative importance of various explanations for the gender gap in career outcomes for highly-educated workers in the U.S. corporate and financial sectors. The careers of MBAs, who graduated between 1990 and 2006 from a top U.S. business school, are studied to understand how career dynamics differ by gender. Although male and female MBAs have nearly identical (labor) incomes at the outset of their careers, their earnings soon diverge, with the male annual earnings…” Link

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POWERFUL WOMEN: DOES EXPOSURE REDUCE BIAS? Rohini Pande, January 2009: Paper: “We exploit random assignment of gender quotas for leadership positions across Indian village councils to show that prior exposure to a female leader is associated with electoral gains for women. After ten years of quotas, women are more likely to stand for, and win, elected positions in councils required to have a female chief councilor in the previous two elections. We provide experimental and survey evidence on one channel of influence – changes in voter attitudes. Prior exposure to a female chief councilor improves perceptions of female leader effectiveness and weakens stereotypes about gender roles in public and domestic spheres.” Link

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Variance Function Regressions for Studying Inequality

Variance Function Regressions for Studying Inequality. Bruce Western, January 2009, Paper. “Regression-based studies of inequality model only between-group differences, yet often these differences are far exceeded by residual inequality. Residual inequality is usually attributed to measurement error or the influence of unobserved characteristics. We present a regression that includes covariates for both the mean and variance of a dependent variable. In this model, the residual variance is treated as a target for analysis. In analyses of inequality, the residual variance might be interpreted as measuring risk or insecurity …” Link

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Widening Inequality Combined with Modest Growth

Widening Inequality Combined with Modest Growth. Benjamin Friedman, January 2009, Paper. “The crisis triggered by the collapse of subprime mortgage lending in the United States has already resulted in the worst financial turmoil since the 1930s. The U.S. economy is now in recession, and the public is anxiously watching to see just how badly, and for how long, these events in the financial markets will depress non-financial economic activity. Business in most other industrialized countries is slipping as well. Most citizens, in most countries, fear that their incomes and perhaps their living standards as well will suffer…” Link

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