Found 668 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

DAMS

DAMS. Rohini Pande, October 2007, Paper: “This paper studies the productivity and distributional effects of large irrigation dams in India. Our instrumental variable estimates exploit the fact that river gradient affects a district’s suit- ability for dams. In districts located downstream from a dam, agricultural production increases, and vulnerability to rainfall shocks declines. In contrast, agricultural production shows an in- significant increase in the district where the dam is located but its volatility increases. Rural poverty declines in downstream districts but increases in the district where the dam is built, suggesting that neither markets nor state institutions have alleviated the adverse distributional impacts of dam construction.” Link

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When Are Ghettos Bad? Lessons from Immigrant Segregation in the United States

When Are Ghettos Bad? Lessons from Immigrant Segregation in the United States. Edward Glaeser, David Cutler, May 2007, Paper. “Recent literature on the relationship between ethnic or racial segregation and outcomes has failed to produce a consensus view of the role of ghettos; some studies suggest that residence in an enclave is beneficial, some reach the opposite conclusion, and still others imply that any relationship is small. This paper presents new evidence on this relationship using data on first-generation immigrants in the United States. Using average group characteristics as instruments for segregation, controlling…” Link

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The Power of the Family

The Power of the Family. Alberto Alesina and Paola Giuliano, April 2007, Paper. “The structure of family relationships influences economic behavior and attitudes. We define our measure of family ties using individual responses from the World Value Survey regarding the role of the family and the love and respect that children need to have for their parents for over 70 countries. We show that strong family ties imply more reliance on the family as an economic unit which provides goods and services and less on the market and on the government for social insurance…” Link

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The Race between Education and Technology: The Evolution of U.S. Educational Wage Differentials, 1890 to 2005

The Race between Education and Technology: The Evolution of U.S. Educational Wage Differentials, 1890-2005. Lawrence Katz, Claudia Goldin, March 2007, Paper. “U.S. educational and occupational wage differentials were exceptionally high at the dawn of the twentieth century and then decreased in several stages over the next eight decades. But starting in the early 1980s the labor market premium to skill rose sharply and by 2005 the college wage premium was back at its 1915 level. The twentieth century contains two inequality tales: one declining and one rising. We use a supply-demand-institutions framework to understand the factors that…” Link

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The Global Gender Gap Report 2007

The Global Gender Gap Report 2007. Ricardo Hausmann, 2007, Paper. “At the World Economic Forum we recognize that the advancement of women is an important economic, business and societal issue with a significant impact on the growth of nations. Thus, for several years, we have explicitly incorporated aspects of gender equality into our measures of competitiveness and fostered dialogue within our Women Leaders Programme…” Link

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Large Dams in India

Large Dams in India. Rohini Pande, January 2007, Paper. “At independence, in 1947, there were fewer than 300 large dams in India. By the year 2000 the number had grown to over 4000, more than half of them built between 1971 and 1989. India ranks third in the world in dam building, after US and China. While some of these dams were built primarily for flood control, water supply, and hydroelectric power generation, the primary purpose of most Indian dams (96 percent) remains irrigation. In fact, large dam construction has been the main form of investment in irrigation undertaken by the Indian government…” Link

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Rural Credit

Rural Credit. Rohini Pande, January 2007, Paper. “In 2000, over seventy percent of India’s population, and roughly three quarters of its poor, lived in rural areas. The main livelihood in rural India remains agriculture, an activity characterized by significant time-lags in production and a high degree of sensitivity to weather conditions. These features of agricultural production make access to financial instruments critical to a rural household’s ability to smooth income shocks and make long-term productive investments. However, as is well known lenders’ inability to perfectly identify the credit-worthiness of potential borrowers and the cost of enforcing repayment places severe restrictions on rural households’ access to credit…” Link

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Participatory Democracy in Action: Survey Evidence from South India

Participatory Democracy in Action: Survey Evidence from South India. Rohini Pande, January 2006, Paper: “We use household and village survey data from South India to examine who participates in village meetings called by elected local governments, and what effect these meetings have on beneficiary selection for welfare programs. Our main finding is that it is the more disadvantaged social groups who attend village meetings and that holding such meetings improves the targeting of resources towards the neediest groups.” Link

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