Found 713 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

Do concerns about labor market competition shape attitudes toward immigration? New evidence.

Do concerns about labor market competition shape attitudes toward immigration? New evidence. Michael Hiscox, September 1, 2011, Paper. “Are concerns about labor market competition a powerful source of anti-immigrant sentiment? Several prominent studies have examined survey data on voters and concluded that fears about the negative effects of immigration on wages and employment play a major role generating anti-immigrant attitudes. We examine new data from a targeted survey of U.S. employees in 12 different industries. In contrast with previous studies, the findings indicate that fears about labor market competition do not appear to have substantial effects on attitudes toward immigration, and preferences with regard to immigration policy, among this large and diverse set of voters …” Link

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Association between Income and the Hippocampus

Association between Income and the Hippocampus. Amitabh Chandra, May 4, 2011, Paper. “Facets of the post-natal environment including the type and complexity of environmental stimuli, the quality of parenting behaviors, and the amount and type of stress experienced by a child affects brain and behavioral functioning. Poverty is a type of pervasive experience that is likely to influence biobehavioral processes because children developing in such environments often encounter high levels of stress and reduced environmental stimulation. This study explores the association between socioeconomic status and the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory that is known to be affected by stress. We employ a voxel-based morphometry analytic framework with region of interest drawing for structural brain images acquired from participants across the socioeconomic spectrum (n = 317) …” Link

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New Land of Opportunity

New Land of Opportunity. Edward Glaeser, April 20, 2011, Paper. “Mumbai’s Dharavi slum is the most entrepreneurial place I’ve ever been. In one dark room–open to the street–there are two men recycling boxes by turning them inside out and re-stapling them. Across the dusty street, six women work together sorting great bins of plastic products for recycling. A few doorways down two men are maniacally sewing brassieres, just like on Manhattan’s Lower East Side in 1905. A little ways off craftspeople are painting and firing intricately designed ceramics. The UN estimates that 828 million people, which is about 12% of humanity, live in slums…” Link

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Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does it Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps?

Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does it Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps? Ricardo Hausmann, April 2011, Paper. “In this paper we examine several dimensions of gender disparity for a sample of 40 countries using micro-level data. We start by documenting the reversal of the gender education gap and ranking countries by the year in which it reversed. Then we turn to an analysis of the state of other gaps facing women: we compare men and women’s labor force participation (the labor force participation gap), married and single women’s labor force participation (the marriage gap), and…” Link

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Improving Financial Access for Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries

Improving Financial Access for Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries. Shawn Cole, March 2011 , Paper, “Providing incentives for loan officers is difficult as banks seek to both increase lending volume whilst minimizing risk. Incentives play an important role in emerging markets where high information costs and the limited enforceability of debt contracts means that risk management relies on the expertise of the bank’s front-line employees.” Link

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Political Instability: Effects on Financial Development, Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality

Political Instability: Effects on Financial Development, Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality. Mark Roe and Jordan Siegel, February 3, 2011, Paper. “We here bring forward strong evidence that political instability impedes financial development, with its variation a primary determinant of differences in financial development around the world. As such, it needs to be added to the short list of major determinants of financial development. First, structural conditions first postulated by Engerman and Sokoloff (2002) as generating long-term inequality are shown here empirically to be exogenous determinants of political instability…” Link

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Rethinking the Federal Bias Toward Homeownership

Rethinking the Federal Bias Toward Homeownership. Edward Glaeser, 2011, Paper. “The most fundamental fact about rental housing in the United States is that rental units are overwhelmingly in multifamily structures. This fact surely reflects the agency problems associated with renting single-family dwellings, and it should influence all discussions of rental housing policy. Policies that encourage homeowning are implicitly encouraging people to move away from higher density living; policies that discourage renting are implicitly discouraging multifamily buildings. Two major distortions shape the rental housing market…” Link.

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The Global Gender Gap Report 2011

The Global Gender Gap Report 2011. Ricardo Hausmann, 2011, Paper. “Given the complexity of the world today and the economic, demographic, environmental and political transformations we face, we must commit to a new mindset, one that discards old prejudices and inertia and instead commits to new ideas and new solutions. Empowering and educating girls and women and leveraging their talent and leadership fully in the global economy, politics and society are fundamental elements of the new models required to succeed in today’s challenging landscape…” Link

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Being Poor, Black, and American: The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces

Being Poor, Black, and American: The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces. William Julius Wilson, Spring 2011, Paper. “Through the second half of the 1990s and into the early years of the 21st century, public attention to the plight of poor black Americans seemed to wane. There was scant media attention to the problem of concentrated urban poverty (neighborhoods in which a high percentage of the residents fall beneath the federally designated poverty line), little or no discussion of inner-city challenges by mainstream political leaders, and even an apparent quiescence on the part of ghetto residents themselves …” Link

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Does Economic Inequality Cause Crises?

Does Economic Inequality Cause Crises? Edward Glaeser, December 14, 2010, Paper. “Did inequality cause the recent housing and financial crisis? For decades, a growing literature has tried to establish links between inequality and adverse outcomes, such as low economic growth,weak social cohesion and mortality and, most recently, financial crises. If true, these arguments would provide even more reasons to worry about our unequal income distribution. If false, we should still worry about income inequality, because in a just society everyone should have a decent standard of living and the opportunity to succeed. Empirically, it is true…” Link

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