Found 697 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

Cohort Change and Racial Differences in Educational and Income Mobility

Cohort Change and Racial Differences in Educational and Income Mobility. Bruce Western, December 22, 2011, Paper. “Policy reforms and rising income inequality transformed educational and economic opportunities for Americans approaching midlife in the 1990s. Rising income inequality may have reduced mobility, as income gaps increased between rich and poor children. Against the effects of rising inequality, Civil Rights reforms may have increased mobility, as opportunities expanded across cohorts of black students and workers. We compare educational and income mobility for two cohorts of black and white men, the older born in the late 1940s…” Link

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The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators?

The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators? David Deming, Claudia Goldin, Lawrence Katz, December 2011, Paper. “Private for-profit institutions have been the fastest growing part of the U.S. higher education sector. For-profit enrollment increased from 0.2 percent to 9.1 percent of total enrollment in degree-granting schools from 1970 to 2009, and for-profit institutions account for the majority of enrollments in non-degree granting postsecondary schools. We describe the schools, students, and programs in the for-profit higher education sector, its phenomenal recent growth, and its relationship to the…” Link

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Network Effects and Social Inequality

Network Effects and Social Inequality. Filiz Garip, December 2011, Paper. “Students of social inequality have noted the presence of mechanisms militating toward cumulative advantage and increasing inequality. Social scientists have established that individuals’ choices are influenced by those of their network peers in many social domains. We suggest that the ubiquity of network effects and tendencies toward cumulative advantage are related …” Link

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Neighborhoods, Obesity and Diabetes – A Randomized Social Experiment

Neighborhoods, Obesity and Diabetes – A Randomized Social Experiment. Lawrence Katz, Ronald Kessler, October 20, 2011, Paper. “Using data from a large social experiment (Moving to Opportunity), which offered low-income women the chance to move from high-poverty to lower-poverty neighborhoods, this study estimates the association of the randomized intervention with obesity and diabetes.” Link

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Medical Tourism, Access to Health Care, and Global Justice

Medical Tourism, Access to Health Care, and Global Justice. I. Glenn Cohen, September 13, 2011, Paper. “Medical tourism—the travel of patients from one (the “home”) country to another (the “destination”) country for medical treatment—represents a growing business. A number of authors have raised the concern that medical tourism reduces access to health care for the destination country’s poor and suggested that home country governments or international bodies have obligations to curb medical tourism or mitigate its negative effects when they occur. This Article is the first to comprehensively examine both the question of whether this negative…” Link

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“Way Down in the Hole”: Systemic Urban Inequality and The Wire

“Way Down in the Hole”: Systemic Urban Inequality and The Wire. William Julius Wilson, Autumn 2011, Opinion. “The Wire is set in a modern American city shaped by economic restructuring and fundamental demographic change that led to widespread job loss and the depopulation of inner-city neighborhoods. While the series can be viewed as an account of the systemic failure of political, economic, and social institutions in Baltimore in particular, the fundamental principles depicted in The Wire certainly parallel changing conditions in other cities, especially older industrial cities in the Northeast and Midwest…” Link

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Do concerns about labor market competition shape attitudes toward immigration? New evidence.

Do concerns about labor market competition shape attitudes toward immigration? New evidence. Michael Hiscox, September 1, 2011, Paper. “Are concerns about labor market competition a powerful source of anti-immigrant sentiment? Several prominent studies have examined survey data on voters and concluded that fears about the negative effects of immigration on wages and employment play a major role generating anti-immigrant attitudes. We examine new data from a targeted survey of U.S. employees in 12 different industries. In contrast with previous studies, the findings indicate that fears about labor market competition do not appear to have substantial effects on attitudes toward immigration, and preferences with regard to immigration policy, among this large and diverse set of voters …” Link

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Association between Income and the Hippocampus

Association between Income and the Hippocampus. Amitabh Chandra, May 4, 2011, Paper. “Facets of the post-natal environment including the type and complexity of environmental stimuli, the quality of parenting behaviors, and the amount and type of stress experienced by a child affects brain and behavioral functioning. Poverty is a type of pervasive experience that is likely to influence biobehavioral processes because children developing in such environments often encounter high levels of stress and reduced environmental stimulation. This study explores the association between socioeconomic status and the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory that is known to be affected by stress. We employ a voxel-based morphometry analytic framework with region of interest drawing for structural brain images acquired from participants across the socioeconomic spectrum (n = 317) …” Link

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New Land of Opportunity

New Land of Opportunity. Edward Glaeser, April 20, 2011, Paper. “Mumbai’s Dharavi slum is the most entrepreneurial place I’ve ever been. In one dark room–open to the street–there are two men recycling boxes by turning them inside out and re-stapling them. Across the dusty street, six women work together sorting great bins of plastic products for recycling. A few doorways down two men are maniacally sewing brassieres, just like on Manhattan’s Lower East Side in 1905. A little ways off craftspeople are painting and firing intricately designed ceramics. The UN estimates that 828 million people, which is about 12% of humanity, live in slums…” Link

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Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does it Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps?

Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does it Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps? Ricardo Hausmann, April 2011, Paper. “In this paper we examine several dimensions of gender disparity for a sample of 40 countries using micro-level data. We start by documenting the reversal of the gender education gap and ranking countries by the year in which it reversed. Then we turn to an analysis of the state of other gaps facing women: we compare men and women’s labor force participation (the labor force participation gap), married and single women’s labor force participation (the marriage gap), and…” Link

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