Found 694 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

The Political Economy of Hunger: On Reasoning and Participation

The Political Economy of Hunger: On Reasoning and Participation. Amartya Sen, April 2019, Paper, “Sen’s essay concerns the existence of extensive hunger amidst unprecedented global prosperity in the contemporary world, but he argues that the problem would be decisively solvable if our response were no longer shaped by Malthusian pessimism. Effective famine prevention does not turn on food supply per head and the automatic mechanism of the market: there can be plenty of food while large sections of the population lack the means to obtain it. Effective famine prevention thus requires “entitlements.” Economically, governments can and should provide public employment programs so that those threatened by famine can be empowered to command food. Politically, democratic participation and a free press can work to ensure government accountability for famine prevention. The choice that Sen urges, however, is not for the state over the market—the experience of the Indian state of Kerala demonstrates that a voluntaristic approach can work as well or better than China’s compulsory “one child policy” in limiting the rapid population growth that contributes to world hunger. Rather, a reasoned solution to the problem of hunger must acknowledge the complementary importance of both well-functioning markets and open and democratic public action.Link

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Jesse Fried on Inequality, Stock Buybacks, and Misplaced Fears about Short-Termism in Corporate Governance

Jesse Fried on Inequality, Stock Buybacks, and Misplaced Fears about Short-Termism in Corporate Governance March 2019. GrowthPolicy’s Devjani Roy interviewed Jesse Fried, Dane Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, on inequality, stock buybacks, and misplaced fears about short-termism in corporate governance. | Click here for more interviews like this one. Links: Jesse Fried’s faculty […]

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Ricardo Hausmann on Venezuela, Inequality in Productivity, and Policy Lessons for International Development

Ricardo Hausmann on Venezuela, Inequality in Productivity, and Policy Lessons for International Development March 2019. GrowthPolicy’s Devjani Roy interviewed Ricardo Hausmann, Professor of the Practice of Economic Development at Harvard Kennedy School and Director of the Center for International Development at Harvard University, on Venezuela, inequality in productivity, and policy lessons for international development. | […]

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Why Does Hirschmanian Development Remain Mired on the Margins? Because Implementation (and Reform) Really is ‘a Long Voyage of Discovery’

Why Does Hirschmanian Development Remain Mired on the Margins? Because Implementation (and Reform) Really is ‘a Long Voyage of Discovery’. Michael Woolcock, 2019, Paper, “A defining task of development is enhancing a state’s capability for policy implementation. In most low- income countries, alas, such capabilities seem to be stagnant or declining, in no small part because dominant reform strategies are ill-suited to addressing complex non-technical aspects. This has been recognized for at least six decades – indeed, it was a centerpiece of Albert Hirschman’s understanding of the development process – yet this critique, and the significance of its implications, remain on the margins of scholarship and policy. Why? I consider three options, concluding that, paradoxically, followers of Hirschman’s approach inadequately appreciated that gaining more operational traction for their approach was itself a type of problem requiring their ideas to embark on ‘a long voyage of discovery’, a task best accomplished, in this instance, by building – and tapping into the distinctive insights of – a diverse community of development practitioners.Link

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Humanitarian Markets

Humanitarian Markets. Ricardo Hausmann, March 25, 2019, Opinion, “The role of humanitarian assistance is like that of a car battery: it gets the cylinders moving until the sequence of internal explosions in the engine recharges the battery and makes the process self-sustaining. That task is made easier by using, rather than replacing, markets.Link

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Intergenerational Wealth Mobility and Racial Inequality

Intergenerational Wealth Mobility and Racial Inequality. Alexandra Killewald, 2019, Paper, “The black-white gap in household wealth is large and well documented. Here, we visualize how this racial wealth gap persists across generations. Animating the flow of individuals between the relative wealth position of parents and their adult children, we show that the disadvantage of black families is a consequence both of wealth inequality in prior generations and race differences in the transmission of wealth positions across generations: Black children both have less wealthy parents on average and are far more likely to be downwardly mobile in household wealth. By displaying intergenerational movements between parental and offspring wealth quintiles, we underline how intergenerational fluctuation coexists with the maintenance of a severely racialized wealth structure.Link

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The Future of Economic and Social Rights – Foreword

The Future of Economic and Social Rights – Foreword. Amartya Sen, 2019, Book Chapter, “The future of economic and social rights is unlikely to resemble its past. Neglected within the human rights movement, avoided by courts, and subsumed within a single-minded conception of development as economic growth, economic and social rights enjoyed an uncertain status in international human rights law and in the public laws of most countries. However, today, under conditions of immense poverty, insecurity, and political instability, the rights to education, health care, housing, social security, food, water, and sanitation are central components of the human rights agenda. The Future of Economic and Social Rights captures the significant transformations occurring in the theory and practice of economic and social rights, in constitutional and human rights law. Professor Katharine G. Young brings together a group of distinguished scholars from diverse disciplines to examine and advance the broad research field of economic and social rights that incorporates legal, political science, economic, philosophy and anthropology scholars.Link

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Do the Poor Pay More for Housing? Exploitation, Profit, and Risk in Rental Markets

Do the Poor Pay More for Housing? Exploitation, Profit, and Risk in Rental Markets. Matthew Desmond, 2019, Paper, “This article examines tenant exploitation and landlord profit margins within residential rental markets. Defining exploitation as being overcharged relative to the market value of a property, the authors find exploitation of tenants to be highest in poor neighborhoods. Landlords in poor neighborhoods also extract higher profits from housing units. Property values and tax burdens are considerably lower in depressed residential areas, but rents are not. Because landlords operating in poor communities face more risks, they hedge their position by raising rents on all tenants, carrying the weight of social structure into price. Since losses are rare, landlords typically realize the surplus risk charge as higher profits. Promoting a relational approach to the analysis of inequality, this study demonstrates how the market strategies of landlords contribute to high rent burdens in low-income neighborhoods.Link

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