Found 694 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

Urban migration and housing during resource booms: The case of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana

Urban migration and housing during resource booms: The case of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. Michael Hooper, September 30, 2019, Paper, “This paper investigates the relationship between urban migration and housing in the context of an emergent oil boom in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. The paper responds to the relative lack of research on resource boom-driven urbanization, particularly in Africa, and on the way in which urban migration shapes, and is shaped by, housing conditions. The paper analyzes the relationship between housing conditions and urban migrants’ choice of residential locations. Drawing on both qualitative and quantitative analysis of data from 322 surveys in two neighborhoods of Sekondi-Takoradi, the paper draws three primary conclusions. First, migrants’ choices regarding where they live are premised on neighborhood housing conditions. Second, most migrants are urban-urban migrants which means that the predominant theories of urban growth are poorly equipped to address the urban transformation occurring in Sekondi-Takoradi. Finally, migrants’ housing choices have considerable urban form implications, promoting in different contexts both urban densification and urban sprawl. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these findings in the Ghanaian and wider African contexts.Link

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Access To The American Dream Isn’t Just Determined By Income. Geography Matters

Access To The American Dream Isn’t Just Determined By Income. Geography Matters. Raj Chetty, September 27, 2019, Audio, “Research shows that America’s claim of social mobility is a myth, according to Harvard Economics Professor Raj Chetty, who told Boston Public Radio Friday that children in America are half as likely to climb out of poverty than they are in Canada. Chetty is the William A. Ackman Professor of Economics at Harvard and director of the Opportunity Insights program, where his team has determined that geography is crucial in determining social mobility. And this geography is specific, Chetty’s research shows — sometimes even correlated to a person’s neighborhood or block.Link

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The Law, Corporate Governance, and Economic Justice

The Law, Corporate Governance, and Economic Justice. Mark Roe, September 26, 2019, Paper, “The Chief Justice of the Delaware Supreme Court begins by invoking the New Deal, and expressing admiration for the way its goals and some of its social programs have been put into practice by Northern European social democracies. Most important are their protections for workers and the unemployed—protections the Judge finds deplorably absent in U.S. law and corporate labor practices. Nevertheless, when contemplating how corporate boards in the U.S. might respond to the growing demand for U.S. public companies to address social problems like the environment and economic inequality, the Delaware judge falls back on the prescription of Adolph Berle, who, though one of the framers of the New Deal, insisted that companies “stick to their knitting” by putting shareholders first as the only way of ensuring the accountability of corporate managements and boards.Link

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Jason Furman, Former Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, on the Economy

Jason Furman, Former Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, on the Economy. Jason Furman, September 24, 2019, Video, “Jason Furman, Former Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers and Professor of the Practice of Economic Policy at Harvard Kennedy School, discusses the economy. He speaks with David Westin on “Bloomberg: Balance of Power.”Link

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John Campbell on the Current Investing Environment, Asset Pricing, Stock Market Lessons from India, and Solutions for Financial Crises

John Campbell on the Current Investing Environment, Asset Pricing, Stock Market Lessons from India, and Solutions for Financial Crises September 2019. GrowthPolicy’s Devjani Roy interviewed John Y. Campbell, Morton L. and Carole S. Olshan Professor of Economics at Harvard University, on the current investing environment, asset pricing, stock market lessons from India, and solutions for […]

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Creative Destruction or Idiot Winds: Schumpeterian Theory Meets the Educational Sector in Developing Countries

Creative Destruction or Idiot Winds: Schumpeterian Theory Meets the Educational Sector in Developing Countries. Mark Moore, 2019, Paper, “This is one of a series of working papers from “RISE”—the large-scale education systems research programme supported by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID), Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.Link

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Should We Worry About Income Gaps Within or Between Countries?

Should We Worry About Income Gaps Within or Between Countries? Dani Rodrick, September 10, 2019, Opinion, “The rise of populist nationalism throughout the West has been fueled partly by a clash between the objectives of equity in rich countries and higher living standards in poor countries. Yet advanced-economy policies that emphasize domestic equity need not be harmful to the global poor, even in international trade.Link

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Redefining Engagement with Socio-spatially Marginalised Populations: Learning from Ghana’s Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development

Redefining Engagement with Socio-spatially Marginalised Populations: Learning from Ghana’s Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development. Michael Hooper, 2019, Paper, “Global interest in enhancing accountability and community participation has led many governments to engage socio-spatially marginalised populations left behind by urban development. This article examines an emergent example of these efforts: Ghana’s Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development (MICZD). The MICZD’s objective is to improve the social and infrastructural development of zongos, or ‘stranger’s quarters’, which have historically housed Hausa migrants and are associated with slum-like conditions. The study draws on 38 interviews with government stakeholders, community organisations and local leaders as well as on four focus groups with zongo residents. The results reveal four key findings. First, the MICZD’s engagement with zongos is perceived as politically motivated, with this viewed negatively by some and positively by others. Second, the MICZD’s timeline is perceived differently depending on who is being asked. Third, respondents differ in their prioritisation of physical versus social improvements, with the MICZD focussing on physical interventions and zongo residents focussing on social and economic development. Finally, different groups have varied visions of success for the MICZD. The article concludes by identifying two paths towards more empowering state– society engagement—more continuous engagement and counterbalancing powers—and proposes how lessons from the MICZD can inform engagement with marginalised populations more broadly.Link

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Collective Risk and Distributional Equity in Climate Change Bargaining

Collective Risk and Distributional Equity in Climate Change Bargaining. Dustin Tingley, 2019, Paper, “International climate negotiations occur against the backdrop of increasing collective risk: the likelihood of catastrophic economic loss due to climate change will continue to increase unless and until global mitigation efforts are sufficient to prevent it. We introduce a novel alternating-offers bargaining model that incorporates this characteristic feature of climate change. We test the model using an incentivized experiment. We manipulate two important distributional equity principles: capacity to pay for mitigation of climate change and vulnerability to its potentially catastrophic effects. Our results show that less vulnerable parties do not exploit the greater vulnerability of their bargaining partners. They are, rather, more generous. Conversely, parties with greater capacity are less generous in their offers. Both collective risk itself and its importance in light of the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report make it all the more urgent to better understand this crucial strategic feature of climate change bargaining.Link

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The Gender Gap in Self-Promotion

The Gender Gap in Self-Promotion. Christine Exley, September 2, 2019, Paper, “In job applications, job interviews, performance reviews, and a wide range of other environments, individuals are explicitly asked or implicitly invited to describe their performance. In a series of experiments, we find that women subjectively describe their performance less favorably than equally performing men. This gender gap in self-promotion is notably persistent. It stays just as strong when we eliminate gender differences in confidence and when we eliminate strategic incentives to engage in self-promotion. Because of the prevalence of self-promotion opportunities, this self-promotion gap could potentially contribute to the persistent gender gap in education and labor market outcomes.Link

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