Found 663 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

Race, Work, and Leadership: New Perspectives on the Black Experience

Race, Work, and Leadership: New Perspectives on the Black Experience. Anthony Mayo, David Thomas, , “Work, and Leadership is a rare and important compilation of essays that examines how race matters in people’s experience of work and leadership. What does it mean to be black in corporate America today? How are racial dynamics in organizations changing? How do we build inclusive organizations? Inspired by and developed in conjunction with the research and programming for Harvard Business School’s celebration of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the HBS African American Student Union, this groundbreaking book shines new light on these and other timely questions and illuminates the present-day dynamics of race in the workplace. Contributions from top scholars, researchers, and practitioners in leadership, organizational behavior, psychology, sociology, and education test the relevance of long-held assumptions and reconsider the research approaches and interventions needed to understand and advance African Americans in work settings and leadership roles. At a time when there are fewer African American men and women in corporate leadership roles, Race, Work, and Leadership will stimulate new scholarship and dialogue on the organizational and leadership challenges of African Americans and become the indispensable reference for anyone committed to understanding, studying, and acting on the challenges facing leaders who are building inclusive organizations.Link

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Membership without Social Citizenship? Deservingness & Redistribution as Grounds for Equality

Membership without Social Citizenship? Deservingness & Redistribution as Grounds for Equality. Michèle Lamont, Summer 2019, Paper, “Western societies have experienced a broadening of inclusive membership, whether we consider legal, interpersonal, or cultural membership. Concurrently, we have witnessed increased tensions around social citizenship, notably harsher judgments or boundaries over who “deserves” public assistance. Some have argued these phenomena are linked, with expanded, more diverse membership corroding solidarity and redistribution. We maintain that such a conclusion is premature and, especially, unsatisfactory: it fails to detail the processes–at multiple levels of analysis–behind tensions over membership and social citizenship. This essay draws on normative political theory, social psychology, cultural sociology, and political studies to build a layered explanatory framework that highlights the importance of individual feelings of group identity and threat for people’s beliefs and actions; the significance of broader cultural repertoires and notions of national solidarity as a source and product of framing contests; and the diverse ways elites, power, and institutions affect notions of membership and deservingness.Link

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Veil-of-Ignorance Reasoning Favors the Greater Good

Veil-of-Ignorance Reasoning Favors the Greater Good. Joshua D. Greene, Max Bazerman, 2019, Paper, “The “veil of ignorance” is a moral reasoning device designed to promote impartial decision-making by denying decision-makers access to potentially biasing information about who will benefit most or least from the available options. Veil-of-ignorance reasoning was originally applied by philosophers and economists to foundational questions concerning the overall organization of society. Here we apply veil-of-ignorance reasoning in a more focused way to specific moral dilemmas, all of which involve a tension between the greater good and competing moral concerns. Across six experiments (N = 5,785), three pre-registered, we find that veil-of-ignorance reasoning favors the greater good. Participants first engaged in veil-of ignorance reasoning about a specific dilemma, asking themselves what they would want if they did not know who among those affected they would be. Participants then responded to a more conventional version of the same dilemma with a moral judgment, a policy preference, or an economic choice.Link

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When Do Development Projects Enhance Community Well-Being?

When Do Development Projects Enhance Community Well-Being? Michael Woolcock, July 4, 2019, Paper, “Many development agencies and governments now seek to engage directly with local communities, whether as a means to the realization of more familiar goals (infrastructure, healthcare, education) or as an end in itself (promoting greater inclusion, participation, well-being). These same agencies and governments, however, are also under increasing pressure to formally demonstrate that their actions ‘work’ and achieve their goals within relatively short timeframes – expectations which are, for the most part, necessary and desirable. But adequately assessing ‘community-driven’ approaches to development requires the deployment of theory and methods that accommodate their distinctive characteristics: building bridges is a qualitatively different task to building the rule of law and empowering minorities. Moreover, the ‘lessons’ inferred from average treatment effects derived from even the most rigorous assessments of community-driven interventions are unlikely to translate cleanly to different contexts and scales of operation. Some guidance for anticipating and managing these conundrums are provided.Link

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The Rise of Opportunity Markets: How Did It Happen & What Can We Do?

The Rise of Opportunity Markets: How Did It Happen & What Can We Do? Peter Hall, June 28, 2019, Paper, “We describe the rise of “opportunity markets” that allow well-off parents to buy opportunity for their children. Although parents cannot directly buy a middle-class outcome for their children, they can buy opportunity indirectly through advantaged access to the schools, neighborhoods, and information that create merit and raise the probability of a middle-class outcome. The rise of opportunity markets happened so gradually that the country has seemingly forgotten that opportunity was not always sold on the market. If the United States were to recommit to equalizing opportunities, this could be pursued by dismantling opportunity markets, by providing low-income parents with the means to participate in them, or by allocating educational opportunities via separate competitions among parents of similar means. The latter approach, which we focus upon here, would not require mobilizing support for a massive redistributive project.Link

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Political Inequality, “Real” Public Preferences, Historical Comparisons & Axes of Disadvantage

Political Inequality, “Real” Public Preferences, Historical Comparisons & Axes of Disadvantage. Jennifer Hochschild, June 28, 2019, Paper, “The essays in this issue of Dædalus raise fascinating and urgent questions about inequality, time, and interdisciplinary research. They lead me to ask further questions about the public’s commitment to reducing inequality, the importance of political power in explaining and reducing social and economic inequities, and the possible incommensurability of activists’ and policy-makers’ vantage points or job descriptions.Link

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Do Some Countries Discriminate More than Others? Evidence from 97 Field Experiments of Racial Discrimination in Hiring

Do Some Countries Discriminate More than Others? Evidence from 97 Field Experiments of Racial Discrimination in Hiring. Devah Pager, June 17, 2019, Paper, “Comparing levels of discrimination across countries can provide a window into large-scale social and political factors often described as the root of discrimination. Because of difficulties in measurement, however, little is established about variation in hiring discrimination across countries. We address this gap through a formal meta-analysis of 97 field experiments of discrimination incorporating more than 200,000 job applications in nine countries in Europe and North America. We find significant discrimination against nonwhite natives in all countries in our analysis; discrimination against white immigrants is present but low. However, discrimination rates vary strongly by country: In high-discrimination countries, white natives receive nearly twice the callbacks of nonwhites; in low-discrimination countries, white natives receive about 25 percent more. France has the highest discrimination rates, followed by Sweden. We find smaller differences among Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, the United States, and Germany. These findings challenge several conventional macro-level theories of discrimination.Link

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The Macroeconomic Implications of Housing Supply Restrictions

The Macroeconomic Implications of Housing Supply Restrictions. Edward Glaeser, June 15, 2019, Paper, “Housing supply restrictions, including historic preservation policies, minimum lot sizes and height limitations, are typically approached with static Pigouvian tools, but these policies also have dynamic implications. Restricted supply will typically make quantities, which determine construction employment, less volatile, and prices, which determine financial stability, more volatile. A prominent exception occurs when supply-unconstrained areas build so much during a boom that construction halts during the bust, and in that case, elastic supply can be associated with both price volatility and a limited ability to use credit instruments to boost employment during a bust. As institutions with counter-cyclical missions grapple with housing policies, they must recognize that housing regulation interacts with monetary policy, and that reforming housing policy may have implications for the business cycle.Link

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Migrant Inventors and the Technological Advantage of Nations

Migrant Inventors and the Technological Advantage of Nations. Prithwiraj Choudhury, 2019, Paper, “We investigate the relationship between the presence of migrant inventors and the dynamics of innovation in the migrants’ receiving countries. We find that countries are 25 to 50 percent more likely to gain advantage in patenting in certain technologies given a twofold increase in the number of foreign inventors from other nations that specialize in those same technologies. For the average country in our sample this number corresponds to only 25 inventors and a standard deviation of 135. We deal with endogeneity concerns by using historical migration networks to instrument for stocks of migrant inventors. Our results generalize the evidence of previous studies that show how migrant inventors “import” knowledge from their home countries which translate into higher patenting. We complement our results with micro-evidence showing that migrant inventors are more prevalent in the first bulk of patents of a country in a given technology, as compared to patents filed at later stages. We interpret these results as tangible evidence of migrants facilitating the technology-specific diffusion of knowledge across nations.Link

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What Exactly Is Affordable Housing?

What Exactly Is Affordable Housing? Chris Herbert, June 3, 2019, Audio, “Affordable housing: While just two words, the concept isn’t really as simple as it might sound. Despite the complexity of the issue, we so often hear the term “affordable housing” thrown around by everyone from politicians to activists to the press, as if it were a single, monolithic thing. But there are different types of affordable housing, said Chris Herbert, managing director of Harvard’s Joint Center for Housing Studies, leftover from years of housing policies.Link

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