Found 326 article(s) in category 'Q2: Jobs?'

Notes on Behavioral Economics and Labor Market Policy

Notes on Behavioral Economics and Labor Market Policy. Lawrence Katz, Sendhil Mullainathan, 2012, Paper. “Labor market policies succeed or fail at least in part depending on how well they reflect or account for behavioral responses. Insights from behavioral economics, which allow for realistic deviations from standard economic assumptions about behavior, have consequences for the design and functioning of labor market policies. We review key implications of behavioral economics related to procrastination, difficulties in dealing with complexity, and potentially biased labor market expectations for the design of selected labor market…” Link

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Do concerns about labor market competition shape attitudes toward immigration? New evidence

Do concerns about labor market competition shape attitudes toward immigration? New evidence. Michael Hiscox, December 2011, Paper, “Are concerns about labor market competition a powerful source of anti-immigrant sentiment? Several prominent studies have examined survey data on voters and concluded that fears about the negative effects of immigration on wages and employment play a major role generating anti-immigrant attitudes. We examine new data from a targeted survey of U.S. employees in 12 different industries. In contrast with previous studies, the findings indicate that fears about labor market competition do not appear to have substantial effects on attitudes toward immigration, and preferences with regard to immigration policy, among this large and diverse set of voters.Link

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The Cost of Workplace Flexibility for High-Powered Professionals

The Cost of Workplace Flexibility for High-Powered Professionals. Lawrence Katz, Claudia Goldin, November 2011, Paper. “We study the pecuniary penalties for family-related amenities in the workplace (e.g., job interruptions, short hours, part-time work, and flexibility during the workday), how women have responded to them, and how the penalties have changed over time. The pecuniary penalties to behaviors that are beneficial to family appear to have decreased in many professions. Self-employment has declined in many of the high-end professions (e.g., pharmacy, optometry, dental, law, medicine, and veterinary medicine) where it was…” Link

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Do Powerful Politicians Cause Corporate Downsizing

Do Powerful Politicians Cause Corporate Downsizing. Lauren Cohen, Joshua Coval, Christopher J. Malloy, October 7, 2011, Paper. “This paper employs a new empirical approach for identifying the impact of government spending on the private sector. Our key innovation is to use changes in congressional committee chairmanship as a source of exogenous variation in state-level federal expenditures. In doing so, we show that fiscal spending shocks appear to significantly dampen corporate sector investment and employment activity…” Link

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Unleash the Entrepreneurs: Bad Policies are Holding Back the Ultimate Job Creators

Unleash the Entrepreneurs: Bad Policies are Holding Back the Ultimate Job Creators. Edward Glaeser, September 2011, Paper. “Three years have passed since the financial crisis of 2008, and unemployment rates remain painfully high. As of August 2011, America employed 6.6 million fewer workers than it did four years earlier. To try to fix the problem, the Obama administration has pursued a variety of Keynesian measures — above all, the huge stimulus package of 2009, which included not only direct government spending but also such features as tax credits for home buyers and temporary tax cuts for most Americans…” Link

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Do Broad-based Employee Ownership, Profit Sharing and Stock Options Help the Best Firms Do Even Better?

Do Broad-based Employee Ownership, Profit Sharing and Stock Options Help the Best Firms Do Even Better? Richard Freeman, 2011, Paper, “This article analyses the linkages among group incentive methods of compensation (broad-based employee ownership, profit sharing and stock options), labour practices, worker assessments of workplace culture, turnover and firm performance in firms that applied to the ‘100 Best Companies to Work For in America’ competition from 2005 to 2007. Although employers with good labour practices self-select into the 100 Best Companies firms sample…Link

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Fertility and the Plough

Fertility and the Plough. Nathan Nunn, 2011, Paper. “Recent studies provide evidence that a significant portion of the cross-country variation in female labor participation and fertility can be explained by cultural norms. In a recent paper, we examine the historical origins of these cultural differences (see Alesina, Giuliano, and Nunn 2010). We test the long-standing hypothesis, first developed by Ester Boserup (1970), that different attitudes about gender roles evolved because of differences in the form of agriculture traditionally practiced. In societies with shifting cultivation, agriculture is labor intensive, cultivation uses a hoe or a digging stick, and women actively participate…” Link

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Grand Challenges in the Study of Employment and Technological Change

Grand Challenges in the Study of Employment and Technological Change. Lawrence Katz, September 29, 2010, Paper. “Leading economists from Paul Samuelson to Paul Krugman have labored to allay the fear that technological advances may reduce overall employment, causing mass unemployment as workers are displaced by machines. This ‘lump of labor fallacy’ – positing that there is a fixed amount of work to be done so that increased labor productivity reduces employment – is intuitively appealing and demonstrably false. Technological improvements create new products and services…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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“Schooling Can’t Buy Me Love”: Marriage, Work, and the Gender Education Gap in Latin America

“Schooling Can’t Buy Me Love”: Marriage, Work, and the Gender Education Gap in Latin America. Ricardo Hausmann, July 2010, Paper. “In this paper we establish six stylized facts related to marriage and work in Latin America and present a simple model to account for them. First, skilled women are less likely to be married than unskilled women. Second, skilled women are less likely to be married than skilled men. Third, married skilled men are more likely to work than unmarried skilled men, but married skilled women are less likely to work than unmarried skilled women. Fourth, Latin American women…” Link

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The Secret to Job Growth: Think Small

The Secret to Job Growth: Think Small. Edward Glaeser, William Kerr, July 2010, Paper. “With job growth continuing to lag even as the economy picks up, local communities will be tempted to resume “smokestack chasing” – using tax breaks to attract big employers. That’s a misguided approach. Research shows that regional economic growth is highly correlated with the presence of many small, entrepreneurial employers – not a few big ones. In fact, a study of U.S. metro regions showed that cities whose number of “firms per worker” was 10% higher than the average in 1977 experienced 9%…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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