Found 498 article(s) in category 'Q3: Inequality?'

Creative Destruction or Idiot Winds: Schumpeterian Theory Meets the Educational Sector in Developing Countries

Creative Destruction or Idiot Winds: Schumpeterian Theory Meets the Educational Sector in Developing Countries. Mark Moore, 2019, Paper, “This is one of a series of working papers from “RISE”—the large-scale education systems research programme supported by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID), Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.Link

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Should We Worry About Income Gaps Within or Between Countries?

Should We Worry About Income Gaps Within or Between Countries? Dani Rodrick, September 10, 2019, Opinion, “The rise of populist nationalism throughout the West has been fueled partly by a clash between the objectives of equity in rich countries and higher living standards in poor countries. Yet advanced-economy policies that emphasize domestic equity need not be harmful to the global poor, even in international trade.Link

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Redefining Engagement with Socio-spatially Marginalised Populations: Learning from Ghana’s Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development

Redefining Engagement with Socio-spatially Marginalised Populations: Learning from Ghana’s Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development. Michael Hooper, 2019, Paper, “Global interest in enhancing accountability and community participation has led many governments to engage socio-spatially marginalised populations left behind by urban development. This article examines an emergent example of these efforts: Ghana’s Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development (MICZD). The MICZD’s objective is to improve the social and infrastructural development of zongos, or ‘stranger’s quarters’, which have historically housed Hausa migrants and are associated with slum-like conditions. The study draws on 38 interviews with government stakeholders, community organisations and local leaders as well as on four focus groups with zongo residents. The results reveal four key findings. First, the MICZD’s engagement with zongos is perceived as politically motivated, with this viewed negatively by some and positively by others. Second, the MICZD’s timeline is perceived differently depending on who is being asked. Third, respondents differ in their prioritisation of physical versus social improvements, with the MICZD focussing on physical interventions and zongo residents focussing on social and economic development. Finally, different groups have varied visions of success for the MICZD. The article concludes by identifying two paths towards more empowering state– society engagement—more continuous engagement and counterbalancing powers—and proposes how lessons from the MICZD can inform engagement with marginalised populations more broadly.Link

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The Gender Gap in Self-Promotion

The Gender Gap in Self-Promotion. Christine Exley, September 2, 2019, Paper, “In job applications, job interviews, performance reviews, and a wide range of other environments, individuals are explicitly asked or implicitly invited to describe their performance. In a series of experiments, we find that women subjectively describe their performance less favorably than equally performing men. This gender gap in self-promotion is notably persistent. It stays just as strong when we eliminate gender differences in confidence and when we eliminate strategic incentives to engage in self-promotion. Because of the prevalence of self-promotion opportunities, this self-promotion gap could potentially contribute to the persistent gender gap in education and labor market outcomes.Link

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Don’t Blame Economics, Blame Public Policy

Don’t Blame Economics, Blame Public Policy. Ricardo Hausmann, September 1, 2019, Opinion, “Engineering and medicine have in many respects become separate from their respective underlying sciences of physics and biology. Public-policy schools, which typically have a strong economics focus, must now rethink the way they teach students – and medical schools could offer a model to follow.Link

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Populism in Place: The Economic Geography of the Globalization Backla

Populism in Place: The Economic Geography of the Globalization Backlash. Jeffry Frieden, September 2019, Paper, “A populist backlash to globalization has ushered in nationalist governments and challenged core features of the liberal international order (LIO). While startling in scope and urgency, the populist wave has been developing in declining regions of wealthy countries for some time. Trade, offshoring, and automation have steadily reduced the jobs and wages of industrial workers since at least the 1970s. The decline in manufacturing employment initiated the deterioration of social and economic conditions in affected communities, exacerbating inequalities between depressed rural areas and small cities and towns, on the one hand, and thriving cities, on the other. The global financial crisis of 2008 catalyzed these divisions as communities already in decline suffered deeper and longer economic downturns than metropolitan areas where superstar knowledge, technology, and service-oriented firms agglomerate. We document many of these trends across the US and Europe, and demonstrate that populist support is strongest in communities that experienced long-term economic and social decline. Institutional differences in labor markets and electoral rules across developed democracies may explain some of the variation in populists’ electoral success. Renewed support for LIO may require a rejuvenation of distressed communities and an abatement of the stark regional inequalities.Link

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Can Capitalism Be Made Better By Corporate Social Responsibility?

Can Capitalism Be Made Better By Corporate Social Responsibility? Nancy Koehn, August 23, 2019, Audio, “This week, nearly 200 CEOs pledged to discard a foundational tenet of business: that corporations exist only to serve their shareholders.  Chief executives from the Business Roundtable — including leaders of Apple, JP Morgan Chase, and Amazon, argued this week that the purpose of a corporation is to promote “an economy that serves all Americans.” Nancy Koehn, historian at Harvard Business School, said this declaration is a direct response to the public’s growing voice in holding corporations accountable.Link

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Has liberalism ruined everything?

Has liberalism ruined everything? Cass Sunstein, August 23, 2019, Paper, “There has been considerable recent discussion of the social effects of “liberalism,” which are said to include a growth in out-of-wedlock childbirth, repudiation of traditions (religious and otherwise), a rise in populism, increased reliance on technocracy, inequality, environmental degradation, sexual promiscuity, deterioration of civic associations, a diminution of civic virtue, political correctness on university campuses, and a general sense of alienation. There is good reason for skepticism about these claims. Liberalism is not a person, and it is not an agent in history. Claims about the supposedly adverse social effects of liberalism are best taken not as causal claims at all, but as normative objections that should be defended on their merits. These propositions are elaborated with reference to three subordinate propositions: (1) liberalism, as such, does not lack the resources to defend traditions; (2) liberalism, as such, hardly rejects the idea of “constraint,” though the domains in which liberals accept constraints differ from those of antiliberals, and vary over time; (3) liberalism, as such, does not dishonor the idea of “honor.” There is a general point here about the difficulty of demonstrating, and the potential recklessness of claiming, that one or another “ism” is causally associated with concrete social developments.Link

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Creating Moves to Opportunity: Experimental Evidence on Barriers to Neighborhood Choice

Creating Moves to Opportunity: Experimental Evidence on Barriers to Neighborhood Choice. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, Lawrence Katz, August 2019, Paper, “Low-income families in the United States tend to live in neighborhoods that offer limited opportunities for upward income mobility. One potential explanation for this pattern is that families prefer such neighborhoods for other reasons, such as affordability or proximity to family and jobs. An alternative explanation is that they do not move to high-opportunity areas because of barriers that prevent them from making such moves. We test between these two explanations using a randomized controlled trial with housing voucher recipients in Seattle and King County. We provided services to reduce barriers to moving to high-upward-mobility neighborhoods: customized search assistance, landlord engagement, and short-term financial assistance. The intervention increased the fraction of families who moved to high-upward-mobility areas from 14% in the control group to 54% in the treatment group.Link

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Pol Antràs on Trade, Taxation, Solutions for Income Inequality, and the Future of Globalization

Pol Antràs on Trade, Taxation, Solutions for Income Inequality, and the Future of Globalization August 2019. GrowthPolicy’s Devjani Roy interviewed Pol Antràs, Robert G. Ory Professor of Economics at Harvard University, on trade, taxation, solutions for income inequality, and the future of globalization. | Click here for more interviews like this one. Links: Pol Antràs’s faculty page […]

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