Found 405 article(s) in category 'Q2: Inequality?'

WHAT SHOULD WE DO ABOUT INEQUALITY?

Inequality has been rising both within and between countries in recent years. The posts collected here define the different dimensions of inequality and how they manifest, examine its causes, and discuss the extent to which we should be worried. In addition to diagnosing the problem, the posts offer policy options to address it.

A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India

A Tough Call: Understanding barriers to and impacts of women’s mobile phone adoption in India. Rohini Pande, October 2018, Paper, “Today in India, 67% percent of men own mobile phones, but only 33% percent of women do. South Asian countries in general are clear outliers among countries of similar levels of development, with India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh exhibiting some of the world’s highest gender gaps in access to technology. While the mobile gender gap matters in its own right, it is particularly problematic because it can exacerbate other important forms of inequality — in earnings, networking opportunities, and access to information.Link

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Why Is The Number Of Female CEOs Declining?

Why Is The Number Of Female CEOs Declining? Nancy Koehn, October 3, 2018, Audio, “Earlier this week, California Governor Jerry Brown signed a bill into law making his state the first in the nation to require the boards of publicly traded companies to include women. The moves comes as, nationwide, the number of women in top corporate leadership positions is on the decline. The number of female CEOs of Fortune 500 companies declined by 25 percent this year.Link

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The American Dream Is Harder To Find In Some Neighborhoods

The American Dream Is Harder To Find In Some Neighborhoods. Raj Chetty, 10/1/18, Audio, “Does the neighborhood you grow up in determine how far you move up the economic ladder? A new online data tool being made public Monday finds a strong correlation between where people are raised and their chances of achieving the American dream.Link

Opportunity Atlas –

https://www.opportunityatlas.org/

 

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Racialized Re-entry: Labor Market Inequality After Incarceration

Racialized Re-entry: Labor Market Inequality After Incarceration. Bruce Western, October 1, 2018, Paper, “Why do some people succeed in the labor market after incarceration but others do not? We study the transition from prison to work with data on monthly employment and earnings for a sample of men and women observed for a year after incarceration. More than in earlier research, the data provide detailed measurement of temporary and informal employment and richly describe the labor market disadvantages of formerly incarcerated men and women. We find that half the sample is jobless in any given month and average earnings are well below the poverty level.Link

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New Technologies, Global Value Chains, and the Developing Economies

New Technologies, Global Value Chains, and the Developing Economies. Dani Rodrik, 2018, Paper, “The Pathways for Prosperity Commission on Technology and Inclusive Development is proud to work with a talented and diverse group of commissioners who are global leaders from government, the private sector and academia. Hosted and managed by…Link

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Immigrants and the Making of America

Immigrants and the Making of America. Nathan Nunn, September 13, 2018, Paper, “We study the effects of European immigration to the United States during the Age of Mass Migration (1850–1920) on economic prosperity. Exploit cross-county variation in immigration arising from the interaction of fluctuations in aggregate immigrant flows and the gradual expansion of the railway network, we find that counties with more historical immigration have higher incomes, less poverty, less unemployment, higher rates of urbanization, and greater educational attainment today. The long-run effects seem to capture the persistence of short-run benefits, including greater industrialization, increased agricultural productivity, and more innovation.Link

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Production and Welfare: Progress in Economic Measurement

Production and Welfare: Progress in Economic Measurement. Dale Jorgenson, , Paper, “While the GDP was intended by its originators as a measure of production, the absence of a measure of welfare in the national accounts has led to widespread misuse of the GDP to proxy welfare. Measures of welfare are needed to appraise the outcomes of changes in economic policies and evaluate the results. Concepts that describe the income distribution, such as poverty and inequality, fall within the scope of welfare rather than production. This paper reviews recent advances in the measurement of production and welfare within the national accounts, primarily in the United States and international organizations. Expanding the framework beyond the national accounts has led to important innovations in the measurement of both production and welfare.Link

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Place-specific Determinants of Income Gaps: New Sub-National Evidence from Chiapas, Mexico

Place-specific Determinants of Income Gaps: New Sub-National Evidence from Chiapas, Mexico. Ricardo Hausmann, 2018, Paper, “The literature on income gaps between Chiapas and the rest of Mexico revolves around individual factors, such as education and ethnicity. Yet, twenty years after the Zapatista rebellion, the schooling gap between Chiapas and the other Mexican entities has shrunk while the income gap has widened, and we find no evidence indicating that Chiapas indigenes are worse-off than their likes elsewhere in Mexico. We explore a different hypothesis. Based on census data, we calculate the economic complexity index, a measure of the knowledge agglomeration embedded in the economic activities at a municipal level in Mexico. Economic complexity explains a larger fraction of the income gap than any individual factor. Our results suggest that chiapanecos are not the problem, the problem is Chiapas. These results hold when we extend our analysis to Mexico’s thirty-one federal entities, suggesting that place-specific determinants that have been overlooked in both the literature and policy, have a key role in the determination of income gaps.Link

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Universal Basic Incomes vs. Targeted Transfers: Anti-Poverty Programs in Developing Countries

Universal Basic Incomes vs. Targeted Transfers: Anti-Poverty Programs in Developing Countries. Rema Hanna, August 2018, Paper, ” Developing country governments are increasingly implementing cash assistance programs to combat poverty and inequality. This paper examines the potential tradeoffs between targeting these transfers towards low income households versus providing universal cash transfers, also known as a Universal Basic Income. We start by discussing how the fact that most households in poor countries do not pay income taxes changes how we conceptually think about Universal Basic Incomes. We then analyze data from two countries, Indonesia and Peru, to document the tradeoffs involved.Link

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