Found 13 article(s) for author 'Technology'

Innovation network

Innovation network. William Kerr, October 11, 2016, Paper, “We describe the strength and importance of the innovation network that links patenting technology fields together. We quantify that technological advances spill out of individual fields and enrich the work of neighboring technologies, but these spillovers are also localized and not universal. Thus, innovation advances in one part of the network can significantly impact nearby disciplines but rarely those very far away. We verify the strength and stable importance of the innovation network by showing how past innovations can predict future innovations in other fields over 10-y horizons. This better understanding of how scientific progress occurs and how inventions build upon themselves is an important input to our depictions of the cumulative process of innovation and its economic growth consequences.Link

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How Scary is Disruptive Technology?

How Scary is Disruptive Technology? Martin Feldstein, September 28, 2016, Opinion, “The steady stream of improvements in driverless cars has convinced me that before too long the roads will be filled with cars and trucks operating without humans at the wheel. Likewise, I am convinced that the revolution in artificial intelligence will allow computers and robots to do many of the tasks that white-collar workers now do.Link

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Men not at work: Lawrence Summers on America’s hidden unemployment

Men not at work: Lawrence Summers on America’s hidden unemployment. Lawrence Summers, September 23, 2016, Opinion, “The impact of technology on the availability of work is much debated these days. It is widely feared that half the jobs in the economy might be eliminated by innovations such as self-driving vehicles, automatic checkout machines and expert systems that trade securities more effectively than humans can.Link

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Why Important Innovations Stall

Why Important Innovations Stall. Calestous Juma, July 6, 2016, Opinion. “Disruptive, transformative technologies are being introduced at an accelerating pace, fuelling opposition that impedes forms of innovation needed to meet profound challenges such as climate change, poverty and world hunger, says a new study from Harvard University.Link

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Technology, informal workers and cities: insights from Ahmedabad (India), Durban (South Africa) and Lima (Peru)

Technology, informal workers and cities: insights from Ahmedabad (India), Durban (South Africa) and Lima (Peru). Martha Chen, 2016, Paper. “Technology is a key driver of change, not least in the world of work. Yet little is known about what technologies are used by – or impact on – the working poor in the informal economy, and in what ways. This paper presents findings from a 2015 study by the WIEGO network and local partners in three cities: Ahmedabad, India; Durban, South Africa; and Lima, Peru. The findings reveal that informal workers in the study cities are using diverse tools, from manual devices to electrical equipment and internet platforms, to strengthen their livelihoods. Overall, the tools used tend to be basic. Often they are being adapted in ingenious ways in order to adapt to resource and other constraints. Take-up of improved tools is limited by low incomes and concerns about theft and confiscation. It is also affected by city-level, context-specific systems of energy, transport and waste. This paper summarizes which types of technologies are most useful to different sectors of informal workers. It argues that the policy and regulatory environment, and city-wide technological systems, should be more responsive to the technological and other needs of the urban informal workforce.Link

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A Century of Growth and Improvement

A Century of Growth and Improvement. Benjamin Friedman, May 2016, Paper. “The fact that actual economic advance over time normally means producing and consuming different things is usually left implicit in modern models of economic growth. By contrast, qualitative change–new goods and services, and better versions of what already existed–is central to Robert Gordon’s history of the improvement of American living standards since 1870. A major contribution of his fine-grained account of this experience is to make clear what this improvement has meant, and why it has mattered to ordinary citizens.Link

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Innovation and Its Enemies: Why People Resist New Technologies

Innovation and Its Enemies: Why People Resist New Technologies. Calestous Juma, 2016, Book. “The rise of artificial intelligence has rekindled a long-standing debate regarding the impact of technology on employment. This is just one of many areas where exponential advances in technology signal both hope and fear, leading to public controversy. This book shows that many debates over new technologies are framed in the context of risks to moral values, human health, and environmental safety. But it argues that behind these legitimate concerns often lie deeper, but unacknowledged, socioeconomic considerations. Technological tensions are often heightened by perceptions that the benefits of new technologies will accrue only to small sections of society while the risks will be more widely distributed. Similarly, innovations that threaten to alter cultural identities tend to generate intense social concern. As such, societies that exhibit great economic and political inequities are likely to experience heightened technological controversies.Link

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The ICT Revolution, World Economic Growth, and Policy Issues

The ICT Revolution, World Economic Growth, and Policy Issues. Dale Jorgenson, February 1, 2016, Paper. “The ICT revolution fueled by the exponential progress of the semiconductor technology and the accelerated pace of globalization has become an important driver of economic growth across nations. In this rapidly changing landscape, the world economy is entering into a New Economic Order, in which developing Asia led by two fast-growing giant economies, China and India, will have much larger impacts on the world economy. This paper provides empirical evidence on these phenomena and highlights policy issues that deem important for a country to seize the ICT revolution for promoting economic growth.Link

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Infrastructure for innovation

Infrastructure for innovation. Calestous Juma, June 26, 2015, Opinion, “Infrastructural development and technological innovation are both vital to Africa’s economic future. Policymakers are currently more focused on infrastructure; they should not forget its critical role in spurring innovation. Infrastructure is both the backbone for the economy but also the motherboard for technological innovation. Without adequate infrastructure, Africa’s economies cannot realise their full potential. The continent’s low economic performance and weak integration into the global economy is in part a result of inadequate infrastructure…Link

 

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Lost in the Clouds: The Impact of Changing Property Rights on Investment in Cloud Computing Ventures

Lost in the Clouds: The Impact of Changing Property Rights on Investment in Cloud Computing Ventures. Josh Lerner, May 2015, Paper. “Our analysis seeks to understand the impact of changing allocations of property rights on investment in new firms. We focus on the Cartoon Network, et al. v. Cablevision decision in the U.S., which narrowed the protection enjoyed by content creators (e.g., movie studios) and gave greater rights to downstream technology firms, as well as decisions in France and Germany that took an opposite view. Our findings regarding relative venture capital investment in the U.S. and Europe…Link

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