Found 7 article(s) for author 'Roland Fryer'

Self-Selection and Comparative Advantage in Social Interactions

Self-Selection and Comparative Advantage in Social Interactions. Roland Fryer, November 2016, Paper, “We propose a model of social interactions based on self-selection and comparative advantage. When students choose peer groups based on comparative advantage, the effect of moving a student into an environment with higher-achieving peers depends on where in the ability distribution she falls and the shadow prices that clear the social market. We show that the model’s key prediction—an individual’s ordinal rank predicts her behavior and test scores—is borne out in one randomized controlled trial in Kenya as well as administrative data from the U.S. To test whether our selection mechanism can explain the effect of rank on outcomes, we conduct an experiment with nearly 600 public school students in Houston. The experimental results suggest that social interactions are mediated by self-selection based on comparative advantage.Link

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Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes. Roland Fryer, August 2016, Paper, “We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.Link

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Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes. Roland Fryer, July 2016, Paper, “We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.Link

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The Production of Human Capital in Developed Countries: Evidence from 196 Randomized Field Experiments

The Production of Human Capital in Developed Countries: Evidence from 196 Randomized Field Experiments. Roland Fryer, March 2016, Paper. “Randomized field experiments designed to better understand the production of human capital have increased exponentially over the past several decades. This chapter summarizes what we have learned about various partial derivatives of the human capital production function, what important partial derivatives are left to be estimated, and what – together – our collective efforts have taught us about how to produce human capital in developed countries. The chapter concludes with a back of the envelope simulation of how much of the racial wage gap in America might be accounted for if human capital policy focused on best practices gleaned from randomized field experiments.Link

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21st Century Inequality: The Declining Significance of Discrimination

21st Century Inequality: The Declining Significance of Discrimination. Roland Fryer, Fall 2014, Paper. “The author wants to talk about inequality in the 21st century, in particular on the decline in the significance of discrimination and the increase in the significance of human capital. It starts with some basic facts about the achievement gap in America. If you listen to NPR or tune into 60 Minutes, you probably get a sense that the US is lagging behind other countries in student achievement and that there is a disturbing difference in the performance of racial groups. For example, on average 44% of all students, regardless of race, are proficient in…” Link

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Achieving Escape Velocity: Neighborhood and School Interventions to Reduce Persistent Inequality

Achieving Escape Velocity: Neighborhood and School Interventions to Reduce Persistent Inequality. Roland Fryer, Lawrence Katz, 2013, Paper. “This paper reviews the evidence on the efficacy of neighborhood and school interventions in improving the long-run outcomes of children growing up in poor families. We focus on studies exploiting exogenous sources of variation in neighborhoods and schools and which examine at least medium-term outcomes. Higher-quality neighborhoods improve family safety, adult subjective well-being and health, and girls’ mental health. But they have no detectable impact on youth human…”  Link

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Exploring the Impact of Financial Incentives on Stereotype Threat: Evidence from a Pilot Study

Exploring the Impact of Financial Incentives on Stereotype Threat: Evidence from a Pilot Study. Roland Fryer, 2008, Paper, “Motivated in part by large and persistent gender gaps in labor market outcomes (e.g., Claudia Goldin 1994; Joseph G. Altonji and Rebecca M. Blank 1998), a large body of experimental research has been devoted to understanding gender differences in behavior and responses to stimuli.1 An influential finding in experimental psychology is the presence of stereotype threat: making gender salient induces large gender gaps in performance on math tests (Steven J. Spencer, Claude M. Steele, and Diane M. Quinn 1999). For instance, when Spencer et al. (1999) informed subjects that women tended to under perform men on the math test they were about to take, women’s test scores dropped by 50 per? cent or more compared to a similar math test in which subjects were not informed of previous gender differences.Link

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