Found 45 article(s) for author 'Rohini Pande'

Improving Human Health Through a Market-Friendly Emissions Scheme, By Rohini Pande, 2011, Paper

Improving Human Health Through a Market-Friendly Emissions Scheme. Rohini Pande, 2011, Paper, “The goal of environmental regulation is to protect human health and livelihoods from environmental harms. The harm due to air pollution in India is very large. The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) conservatively estimated that air pollution contributed to 40,351 premature deaths in only 36 cities of India in 1995, and that the total economic loss caused by air pollution in these cities that year was US$1,310 million (MoEF, 1999). While this harm is widely recognized, regulating air pollution remains difficult because many of the economic activities that create air pollution—from transport to industry and electricity production—are themselves important for growth. Tight regulation using traditional models could therefore itself do harm by lowering living standards.” Link

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Towards an Emissions Trading Scheme for Air Pollutants in India

Towards an Emissions Trading Scheme for Air Pollutants in India. Rohini Pande, August 2010, Paper. ““An emissions trading scheme is a regulatory tool used to reduce pollution emissions at a low overall cost. In such a scheme, the regulator sets the overall amount of emissions but does not decide what any particular source will emit. Industrial plants and other polluters, rather than being told a fixed emissions limit, face a price for their emissions and choose how much to emit, within reasonable limits, taking this price into account. The price of emissions makes pollution costly and gives polluters an incentive to cut back…” Link

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Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India

Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India, Rohini Pande, May 2010, Paper, “What constrains the entrepreneurial choices of poor women? Do traditional institutions pose unique barriers to business growth and profitability for female-run enterprises? The explosion of microfinance programs, which typically target poor female entrepreneurs, has drawn attention to these questions. Indeed, one view is that inadequate access to credit prevents women from under- taking high-return business activities. However, one recent empirical study finds low returns to capital in female-run micro-enterprises.” Link

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Can political affirmative action for women reduce gender bias?

Can political affirmative action for women reduce gender bias? Rohini Pande, January 8, 2009, Article. ““While women have the legal right to equal participation in politics in almost every country around the world, they remain vastly underrepresented in local and national politics. As of July 2006, women accounted for only 17% of parliamentarians worldwide, and a woman headed the government in only seven countries (UNICEF, 2007). These numbers vary dramatically by region. In 2004, the highest share of female parliamentarians was found in the Nordic countries (39.7%), while the lowest was in the Arab States (6%)…” Link

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POWERFUL WOMEN: DOES EXPOSURE REDUCE BIAS?

POWERFUL WOMEN: DOES EXPOSURE REDUCE BIAS? Rohini Pande, January 2009: Paper: “We exploit random assignment of gender quotas for leadership positions across Indian village councils to show that prior exposure to a female leader is associated with electoral gains for women. After ten years of quotas, women are more likely to stand for, and win, elected positions in councils required to have a female chief councilor in the previous two elections. We provide experimental and survey evidence on one channel of influence – changes in voter attitudes. Prior exposure to a female chief councilor improves perceptions of female leader effectiveness and weakens stereotypes about gender roles in public and domestic spheres.” Link

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Segregation, Rent Control, and Riots: The Economics of Religious Conflict in an Indian City

Segregation, Rent Control, and Riots: The Economics of Religious Conflict in an Indian City. Erica Field, Rohini Pande, January 2008, Paper: Religious conflict is an important problem in many ethnically diverse countries (Horowitz 1985). A growing literature in economics suggests that conflict over resources is frequently at the root of such violence (see, for instance, Este- ban and Ray 2007). A number of recent empirical papers provide evidence that negative economic shocks to a community, and the consequent struggle for control over resources, can help explain the eruption of historic tensions into acts of violence.” Link

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Repayment Frequency and Default in Micro-Finance: Evidence from India

Repayment Frequency and Default in Micro-Finance: Evidence from India, Erica Field, Rohini Pande, January 2008, Paper. “In stark contrast to bank debt contracts, most micro-finance con- tracts require that repayments start nearly immediately after loan disbursement and occur weekly thereafter. Even though economic theory suggests that a more flexible repayment schedule would benefit clients and potentially improve their repayment capacity, micro- finance practitioners argue that the fiscal discipline imposed by frequent repayment is critical to preventing loan default. In this paper we use data from a field experiment which randomized client assignment to a weekly or monthly repayment schedule and find no significant effect of type of repayment schedule on client delinquency or default.” Link

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Profits and Politics: Coordinating Technology Adoption in Agriculture

Profits and Politics: Coordinating Technology Adoption in Agriculture, Rohini Pande, December 2007, Paper, “This paper examines the political economy of coordination in a simple two- sector model in which individuals’ choice of agricultural technology affects industrialization. We demonstrate the existence of multiple equilibria; the econ- omy is either characterized by the use of a traditional agricultural technology and a low level of industrialization or the use of a mechanized technology and a high level of industrialization. Relative to the traditional technology, the mechanized technology increases output but leaves some population groups worse off. We show that the distributional implications of choosing the mechanized technology restrict the possibility of Pareto-improving coordination by an elected policy-maker, even when we allow for income redistribution.” Link

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DAMS

DAMS. Rohini Pande, October 2007, Paper: “This paper studies the productivity and distributional effects of large irrigation dams in India. Our instrumental variable estimates exploit the fact that river gradient affects a district’s suit- ability for dams. In districts located downstream from a dam, agricultural production increases, and vulnerability to rainfall shocks declines. In contrast, agricultural production shows an in- significant increase in the district where the dam is located but its volatility increases. Rural poverty declines in downstream districts but increases in the district where the dam is built, suggesting that neither markets nor state institutions have alleviated the adverse distributional impacts of dam construction.” Link

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Political Economy of Panchayats in South India

Political Economy of Panchayats in South India. Rohini Pande, February 24, 2007, Paper. “Based on a study of some 500 villages in the four southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, this paper examines how the functioning of the panchayat system mandated by the 73rd amendment to the Constitution has had an impact on the economic status of villages and the households within them. The study finds that gram panchayats, created by this massive experiment in democratic decentralisation, have had an effect on the delivery of public services, for example…” Link

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