Found 285 article(s) for author 'Innovation'

Firms, crowds, and innovation

Firms, crowds, and innovation. Karim Lakhani, May 2017, Paper, “The purpose of this article is to suggest a (preliminary) taxonomy and research agenda for the topic of “firms, crowds, and innovation” and to provide an introduction to the associated special issue. We specifically discuss how various crowd-related phenomena and practices–for example, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, user innovation, and peer production–relate to theories of the firm, with particular attention on “sociality” in firms and markets. We first briefly review extant theories of the firm and then discuss three theoretical aspects of sociality related to crowds in the context of strategy, organizations, and innovation: (1) the functions of sociality (sociality as extension of rationality, sociality as sensing and signaling, sociality as matching and identity), (2) the forms of sociality (independent/aggregate and interacting/emergent forms of sociality), and (3) the failures of sociality (misattribution and misapplication). We conclude with an outline of future research directions and introduce the special issue papers and essays.Link

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Collaborative is Superadditive in Political Economics

Collaborative is Superadditive in Political Economics. Richard Zeckhauser, 2017, Book Chapter, “This collection gathers some of the greatest minds in economics to discuss their experiences of collaborative research and publication. Nobel Prize winners and other eminent scholars from a representative sample of economics’ major sub-disciplines share how and why they came to work primarily in partnerships or on their own, whether naturally or by necessity. The contributions include discussions of personal experiences, statistical analyses, different levels of investment, and how the digital age has changed researcher interactions. As budget cuts and resource consolidation make working together vital in ever more fields of academia, this book offers valuable advice to help young and seasoned scholars alike identify the right co-author(s).Link

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Contextual Knowledge and Ethnic Migrant Inventors

Contextual Knowledge and Ethnic Migrant Inventors. Prithwiraj Choudhury, 2017, Paper, “We study the role of ethnic Chinese/Indian migrant inventors in transferring contextual knowledge across borders and the role of ethnic networks in further disseminating such knowledge. Using a unique dataset of herbal patents filed in the United States by western firms and universities, we test whether contextual knowledge is codified in the west by ethnic migrant inventors and spread by their ethnic networks. Our identification comes from an exogenous shock to the quota of H1B visas, and a list of institutions that were exempted from the shock. We generate a control group of non-herbal patents that have similar medicinal purposes as our herbal patents through textual matching. Using this framework, we estimate a triple differences equation, and find that herbal patents are likely to be filed by Chinese/Indian migrant inventors and are likely to be initially cited by other Chinese/Indian inventors.Link

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Cross-boundary Teaming for Innovation: Integrating Research on Teams and Knowledge in Organizations

Cross-boundary Teaming for Innovation: Integrating Research on Teams and Knowledge in Organizations. Amy Edmondson, 2017, Paper, “Cross-boundary teaming, within and across organizations, is an increasingly popular strategy for innovation. Knowledge diversity is seen to expand the range of views and ideas that teams can draw upon to innovate. Yet, case studies of practice reveal that teaming across knowledge boundaries can be difficult, and innovation is not always realized. Two streams of research are particularly relevant for understanding this challenge: research on team effectiveness and research on knowledge in organizations. They offer complementary insights: the former stream focuses on group dynamics and measures team inputs, processes, emergent states, and outcomes, while the latter closely investigates dialogue and objects in recurrent social practices.Link

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Cross-boundary teaming for innovation: Integrating research on teams and knowledge in organizations

Cross-boundary teaming for innovation: Integrating research on teams and knowledge in organizations. Amy Edmondson, March 2, 2017, Paper, “Cross-boundary teaming, within and across organizations, is an increasingly popular strategy for innovation. Knowledge diversity is seen to expand the range of views and ideas that teams can draw upon to innovate. Yet, case studies reveal that teaming across knowledge boundaries can be difficult in practice, and innovation is not always realized. Two streams of research are particularly relevant for understanding the challenges inherent in cross-boundary teaming: research on team effectiveness and research on knowledge in organizations. They offer complementary insights: the former stream focuses on group dynamics and measures team inputs, processes, emergent states, and outcomes, while the latter closely investigates dialog and objects in recurrent social practices.Link

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Innovation Policy and the Economy: Introduction to Volume 17

Innovation Policy and the Economy: Introduction to Volume 17. Josh Lerner, 2017, Paper, “This volume is the Seventeenth annual volume of the National Bureau of Economic
Research (NBER) Innovation Policy (IPE) group. The IPE group seeks to provide an accessible
forum to bring the work of leading academic researchers to an audience of policymakers and
those interested in the interaction between public policy and innovation.Link

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Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity

Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity. Tom Nicholas, February 2017, Paper, “This paper builds on the analysis in Akcigit, Grigsby, and Nicholas (2017) by using US patent and Census data to examine macro and micro-level aspects of the relationship between immigration and innovation. We construct a measure of “foreign born expertise” and show that technology areas where immigrant inventors were prevalent between 1880 and 1940 experienced more patenting and citations between 1940 and 2000. We also show that immigrant inventors were more productive during their life cycle than native born inventors, although they received significantly lower levels of labor income than their native born counterparts. Overall, the contribution of foreign born inventors to US innovation was substantial, but we also find evidence of an immigrant inventor wage-gap that cannot be explained by differentials in productivity.Link

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What the Companies on the Right Side of the Digital Business Divide Have in Common

What the Companies on the Right Side of the Digital Business Divide Have in Common. Marco Iansiti, Karim Lakhani, January 31, 2017, Paper, “In just a few years digital technology has connected an ever-growing number of people, sensors, and devices. It’s created new business and social networks, resulted in new ecosystems, and transformed our economy. Of course, not all organizations have responded to it in the same way. While some have invested significantly in technology, operational, and cultural changes, others are lagging behind. Our research shows that digital transformation is paying off for those who embrace it: Digitally transformed organizations (“digital leaders”) performed much better than organizations that lagged behind (“digital laggards”), effectively creating a “digital divide” across companies.Link

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Can Paying Firms More Quickly Affect Aggregate Employment

Can Paying Firms More Quickly Affect Aggregate Employment. Ramana Nanda, January 2017, Paper, “We study the impact of Quickpay, a federal reform that indefinitely accelerated payments to small business contractors of the U.S. government. Despite treated firms being paid just 15 days sooner, we find a strong direct effect of the reform on county-sector employment growth. Importantly, however, we also document substantial crowding out of non-treated firms’ employment within local labor markets. While the overall net employment effect was positive, it was close to zero in tight labor markets – where direct effects were weaker and crowding out stronger. Our results highlight an important channel for alleviating financing constraints in small firms, but also emphasize the general-equilibrium effects of large-scale interventions, which can lead to lower aggregate outcomes depending on labor market conditions.Link

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Technology Beats Corruption

Technology Beats Corruption, Rema Hanna, January 20, 2017, Paper, “More than 1.9 billion individuals in the developing world benefit from social safety net programs: noncontributory transfer programs that distribute cash or basic in-kind products to the poor. But despite their importance, high levels of corruption often stifle the effectiveness of these programs. If cash transfer programs are particularly prone to graft, then in-kind programs should be preferred in practice. In a recent paper, Muralidharan et al. report evidence to the contrary by showing that use of a modern banking technology—biometric smart cards—can help to drastically reduce corruption in cash transfer programs.Link

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