Found 11 article(s) for author 'Inflation'

Dealing with Monetary Paralysis at the Zero Bound

Dealing with Monetary Paralysis at the Zero Bound. Kenneth Rogoff, Summer 2017, Paper, “Recently, the key constraint for central banks is the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates. Central banks fear that if they push short-term policy interest rates too deeply negative, there will be a massive flight into paper currency. This paper asks whether, in a world where paper currency is becoming increasingly vestigial outside small transactions (at least in the legal, tax compliant economy), there might be relatively simple ways to finesse the zero bound without affecting how most ordinary people live. Surprisingly, this question gets little attention compared to the massive number of articles that take the zero bound as given and look for out-of-the-box solutions for dealing with it. In an inversion of the old joke, it is a bit as if the economics literature has insisted on positing ‘assume we don’t have a can opener,’ without considering the possibility that we might be able to devise one. It makes sense not to wait until the next financial crisis to develop plans.Link

Tags: , , , , ,

The Destructive Power of Inflation

The Destructive Power of Inflation. Martin Feldstein, December 22, 2016, Opinion, “When I was in Argentina last week, I was reminded of the devastating power of high inflation. Argentina’s annual inflation rate is now about 20%, down from an estimated rate of about 40% last year. The central bank is struggling to keep the economy on a disinflationary path, with a goal of achieving a 5% rate three years from now.Link

Tags: , ,

Ending the Fed’s Inflation Fixation

Ending the Fed’s Inflation Fixation. Martin Feldstein, May 17, 2016, Opinion, “The primary role of the Federal Reserve and other central banks should be to prevent high rates of inflation. The double-digit inflation rates of the late 1970s and early ’80s were a destructive and frightening experience that could have been avoided by better monetary policy in the previous decade. Fortunately, the Fed’s tighter monetary policy under Paul Volcker brought the inflation rate down and set the stage for a strong economic recovery during the Reagan years.Link

Tags: , , ,

The Effects of a Stronger Dollar on U.S. Prices

The Effects of a Stronger Dollar on U.S. Prices. Gita Gopinath, December 1, 2015, Paper. “Since 2014:Q3, the U.S. dollar has experienced the third-fastest appreciation in over 30 years, with its nominal exchange and real exchange rate rising 15 percent against almost all foreign currencies (as measured by the Major Currencies Dollar Index). This sudden and rapid gain has engendered concerns about how a stronger dollar will affect U.S. export and import prices and ultimately, consumer prices and inflation in the United States. This paper assembles a rich database, spanning the period from 1985:Q1 through 2014:Q4, that combines several measures of prices and exchange rates in order to examine the likely outlook for U.S. import and export prices and consumer prices in the short run (one quarter) and over a 24-month period.Link

Tags: , , , , , ,

Core Inflation and Trend Inflation

Core Inflation and Trend Inflation. James Stock, June 2015, Paper. “An important input to monetary policymaking is estimating the current level of inflation. This paper examines empirically whether the measurement of trend inflation can be improved by using disaggregated data on sectoral inflation to construct indexes akin to core inflation, but with time-varying distributed lags of weights, where the sectoral weight depends on the time-varying volatility and persistence of the sectoral inflation series, and on the comovement among sectors. The model is estimated using U.S. data on 17 components of the personal consumption expenditure inflation index...” Link

Tags: , , ,

The Inflation Puzzle

The Inflation Puzzle. Martin Feldstein, May 29, 2015, Opinion. “The low rate of inflation in the United States is a puzzle, especially to economists who focus on the relationship between inflation and changes in the monetary base. After all, in the past, increases and decreases in the growth rate of the monetary base (currency in circulation plus commercial banks’ reserves held at the central bank) produced – or at least were accompanied by – rises and falls in the inflation rate. And, because the monetary base is controlled directly by the central bank, and is not created by commercial banks, many believe that it is the…” Link

Tags: , , , ,

Demand Side Secular Stagnation

Demand Side Secular Stagnation. Lawrence Summers, May 2015, Paper. “The experience of first Japan and now Europe and the USA suggests that Hansen’s concept of secular stagnation is highly relevant. Recovery has been anemic and follows a generation of financially unsustainable and often lackluster growth. Investment demand has declined while the supply of saving has increased, leaving the economy vulnerable to liquidity traps. Although some US indicators have improved, forward real rates have declined sharply, European prospects remain muddled, and the zero-bound will likely constrain again during the next recession...” Link

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Only raise US rates when whites of inflation’s eyes are visible

Only raise US rates when whites of inflation’s eyes are visible: Aborting recovery and risking a further slowing of price rises is potentially catastrophic. Lawrence Summers, February 8, 2015, Opinion. “I cannot recall a moment when the gap between what markets expect the US Federal Reserve to do and what the Fed itself has forecast it will do has been as large. Markets predict that the Fed will raise rates only to 1.6 per cent by the end of 2017; the Federal Open Market Committee’s average forecast is 3.5 per cent. Such a divergence raises the risk of volatility and poses a communications challenge for the Fed. More important, it raises the question of what should guide future policy…” Link

Tags: , ,

Dealing with Debt

Dealing with Debt. Carmen M. Reinhart, Kenneth Rogoff, February 2015, Paper. “This paper explores the menu of options for renormalizing public debt levels relative to nominal activity in the long run, should governments eventually decide to do so. Orthodox ones for medium-term debt stabilization, the standard fare of officialdom, include enhancing growth, running primary budget surpluses, and privatizing government assets. Heterodox polices include restructuring debt contracts, generating unexpected inflation, taxing wealth, and repressing private finance. We examine 70 episodes across 22 advanced economies…” Link

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

Nominal GDP Targeting for Developing Countries

Nominal GDP Targeting for Developing Countries. Jeffrey Frankel, January 27, 2015. “Interest in nominal GDP (NGDP) targeting has come in the context of large advanced economies. Developing countries are better suited for it, however, in light of big supply shocks and terms of trade shocks, such as monsoon rains and oil import price shocks in the case of India. Under annual inflation targeting (IT), the full impact of adverse supply shocks is felt as lost real GDP. NGDP targeting automatically accommodates such shocks, while retaining the advantage of anchoring expectations. We derive the condition under which NGDP targeting…” Link


Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,