Found 492 article(s) for author 'Inequality'

Securing Property Rights

Securing Property Rights. Edward Glaeser, Andrei Shleifer, September 2016, Paper, “A central challenge in securing property rights is the subversion of justice through legal skill, bribery, or physical force by the strong—the state or its powerful citizens—against the weak. We present evidence that the less educated and poorer citizens in many countries feel their property rights are least secure. We then present a model of a farmer and a mine which can pollute his farm in a jurisdiction where the mine can subvert law enforcement. We show that, in this model, injunctions or other forms of property rules work better than compensation for damage or liability rules. The equivalences of the Coase Theorem break down in realistic ways. The case for injunctions is even stronger when parties can invest in power. Our approach sheds light on several controversies in law and economics, but also applies to practical problems in developing countries, such as low demand for formality, law enforcement under uncertain property rights, and unresolved conflicts between environmental damage and development.Link

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Globalization, Inequality and Welfare

Globalization, Inequality and Welfare. Pol Antras, September 19, 2016, Paper, “This paper studies the welfare implications of trade opening in a world in which trade raises aggregate income but also increases income inequality, and in which redistribution needs to occur via a distortionary income tax-transfer system. We provide tools to characterize and quantify the effects of trade opening on the distribution of disposable income (after redistribution). We propose two adjustments to standard measures of the welfare gains from trade: a ‘welfarist’ correction inspired by the Atkinson (1970) index of inequality, and a ‘costly-redistribution’ correction capturing the efficiency costs associated with the behavioral responses of agents to trade-induced shifts across marginal tax rates.Link

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Radical or Righteous? Using Gender to Shape Public Perceptions

Radical or Righteous? Using Gender to Shape Public Perceptions. Jocelyn Viterna, 2016, Book Chapter, “Yes,(I was) with the guerrillas, because they are the ones who defended us. Because without them, who knows, maybe we would have left fleeing and gone right where the enemy was. Put they went in front of us. Yes, the guerrillas. Our guerrillas. Part of us. After …Link

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Reducing Inequality and Poverty in America

Reducing Inequality and Poverty in America. Martin Feldstein, August 23, 2016, Opinion, “With a new American president and Congress taking office just six months from now, the time has come to rethink the government’s programs aimed at helping the poor. The current election season has reflected widespread concern about the issue of inequality. Reducing poverty, rather than penalizing earned success, is the right focus for dealing with it.” Link

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Understanding the Socioeconomic Gradient in Disability Insurance Receipt

Understanding the Socioeconomic Gradient in Disability Insurance Receipt. David Cutler, August 3, 2016, Paper, “There is a well-known socioeconomic gradient in disability insurance receipt. As Figure 1 shows, 9.0% of people aged 50-52 with a high school degree or less receive Social Security Disability Insurance or Supplemental Security Insurance, compared to 4.3% of those with some college or more.  As people age, the gap between the more and less educated expands. Between the low 50s and the low 60s, SSDI/SSI receipt rises by 6.2 percentage points among the less educated, compared to only 2.4 percentage points among the better educated. The result is that one in six people with a high school degree or less is receiving SSDI/SSI by age 62, compared to one in fifteen people with some college education. Understanding why disability insurance receipt is so tilted to the less educated is key to evaluating the economic importance of disability insurance as well as forecasting future trends.Link

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Multilevel Geographies of Poverty in India

Multilevel Geographies of Poverty in India. S V Subramanian, August 2016, Paper,  “Since the economic reforms in India in 1991, there has been a proliferation of studies examining trends of economic development and poverty across the country. To date, studies have used single-level analyses with aggregated data either at the state level or, less commonly, at the region and district levels. This is the first comprehensive and empirical quantification of the relative importance of multiple geographic levels in shaping poverty distribution in India. We used multilevel logistic models to partition variation in poverty by levels of states, regions, districts, villages, and households. We also mapped the residuals at the state, region and district levels to visualize the geography of poverty. We used data on 35 states, 88 regions, 623 districts, 25,390 villages and 202,250 households from the National Sample Survey in years 2009–10 and 2011–12.Link

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Econometric Tools for Analyzing Moment Inequalities

Econometric Tools for Analyzing Moment Inequalities. Ariel Pakes, August 2016, Paper, “Griliches Lectures, Kyoto. Adjust for Different Variance of Different Moments. Assume that a consistent estimator of the diagonal matrix consisting of the square root of the moments evaluated at each θ is available. Call that estimate ˆDJ(θ)(a diagonal matrix).Link

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Women, Democracy, and the State

Women, Democracy, and the State. Jocelyn Viterna, 2016, Book Chapter, “What role do states and democracies play in development? Although many scholars have addressed this question, fewer have done so with respect to women. In this chapter, we argue that renewed attention to the relationship between states and women would …Link

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Transnational Social Protection: Setting the Agenda

Transnational Social Protection: Setting the Agenda, Jocelyn Viterna, August 2016, Paper, “In todays’ world, more than 220 million people live in a country that is not their own.  Nevertheless, the provision of social welfare is primarily carried out by nations. How are people on the move protected and provided for in the contemporary global context? Have institutional sources of social welfare begun to cross borders to meet the needs of individuals who live transnational lives? This introductory paper proposes a transnational social protection (TSP) research agenda designed to map the kinds of protections that exist for people on the move, determine how these protections travel across borders, and analyze variations in access to these protections. The paper defines TSP; introduces the heuristic tool of a “resource environment” to map and analyze variations in TSP over time, through space, and across individuals; and provides empirical examples demonstrating the centrality of TSP for scholars of states, social welfare, development, and migration.Link

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