Found 503 article(s) for author 'Inequality'

Invisible Inequality Leads to Punishing the Poor and Rewarding the Rich

Invisible Inequality Leads to Punishing the Poor and Rewarding the Rich. Michael I. Norton, November 10, 2016, Paper, “How does lack of awareness of income inequality affect behaviour towards the rich and poor? To address this question, we assigned participants either at random or based on merit to one of five income levels (reflective of the U.S. income distribution), who then played a repeated public goods game with punishment, reward or both. When participants did not know the income distribution, they punished the poor and rewarded the rich.Link

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Multilevel Geographies of Poverty in India

Multilevel Geographies of Poverty in India. S V Subramanian, November 2016, Paper, “Since the economic reforms in India in 1991, there has been a proliferation of studies examining trends of economic development and poverty across the country. To date, studies have used single-level analyses with aggregated data either at the state level or, less commonly, at the region and district levels. This is the first comprehensive and empirical quantification of the relative importance of multiple geographic levels in shaping poverty distribution in India. We used multilevel logistic models to partition variation in poverty by levels of states, regions, districts, villages, and households. We also mapped the residuals at the state, region and district levels to visualize the geography of poverty. We used data on 35 states, 88 regions, 623 districts, 25,390 villages and 202,250 households from the National Sample Survey in years 2009-10 and 2011-12.” Link

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An Account of One’s Own: Can Targeting Benefits Payments Address Social Constraints to Female Labor Force Participation?

An Account of One’s Own: Can Targeting Benefits Payments Address Social Constraints to Female Labor Force Participation? Rohini Pande, October 2016, Paper, “Although emerging economies have enjoyed robust growth in recent years, in many cases female labor force participation has remained low, or even fallen. India, where women often face highly restrictive gender norms regarding work and mobility, is a particularly stark negative outlier. In collaboration with the state government of Madhya Pradesh, we experimentally varied whether women’s wages from India’s public workfare program were deposited into female-owned bank accounts versus an account owned by the male household head.Link

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Intergenerational Mobility and Preferences for Redistribution

Intergenerational Mobility and Preferences for Redistribution. Alberto Alesina, October 26, 2016, Paper, “Using newly collected cross-country survey and experimental data, we investigate how beliefs about intergenerational mobility affect individuals’ preferences for redistribution. We start by documenting the anatomy of views on mobility, fairness, the government, and redistribution across five countries: France, Italy, Sweden, the U.S., and the U.K. We show that Americans are more optimistic than Europeans about intergenerational mobility, and are generally too optimistic relative to reality, especially about the chances of making it from the very bottom to the very top quintile.Link

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Health and Taxes

Health and Taxes. David Cutler, October 25, 2016, Paper, “Viewing health care through the lens of a social issue prompts such questions as: What policies would best improve the population’s health? How can report cards be used to improve the quality of surgery? Where are there opportunities for additional disease prevention? The questions here are intricate and detailed. Some of the issues are clinical, and advice from physicians is actively sought and welcomed. For example, no one would develop a pay-for-performance system for surgeons without extensive involvement of the relevant surgical societies.Link

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E-governance, Accountability, and Leakage in Public Programs: Experimental Evidence from a Financial Management Reform in India

E-governance, Accountability, and Leakage in Public Programs: Experimental Evidence from a Financial Management Reform in India. Rohini Pande, October 16, 2016, Paper, “In collaboration with the Government of Bihar, India, we conducted a large-scale experiment to evaluate whether transparency in fiscal transfer systems can increase accountability and reduce corruption in the implementation of a workfare program. The reforms introduced electronic fund-flow, cut out administrative tiers, and switched the basis of transfer amounts from forecasts to documented expenditures. Treatment reduced leakages along three measures: expenditures and hours claimed dropped while an independent household survey found no impact on actual employment and wages received; a matching exercise reveals a reduction in fake households on payrolls; and local program officials’ self-reported median personal assets fell.Link

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Budgeting for Equity: How Can Participatory Budgeting Advance Equity in the United States?

Budgeting for Equity: How Can Participatory Budgeting Advance Equity in the United States? Josh Lerner, 2016, Paper, “Participatory budgeting (PB) has expanded dramatically in the United States (US) from a pilot process in Chicago’s 49th ward in 2009 to over 50 processes in a dozen cities in 2015. Over this period, scholars, practitioners, and advocates have made two distinct but related claims about its impacts: that it can revitalize democracy and advance equity. In practice, however, achieving the latter has often proven challenging. Based on interviews with PB practitioners from across the US, we argue that an equity-driven model of PB is not simply about improving the quality of deliberation or reducing barriers to participation. While both of these factors are critically important, we identify three additional challenges…Link

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Securing Property Rights

Securing Property Rights. Edward Glaeser, Andrei Shleifer, September 2016, Paper, “A central challenge in securing property rights is the subversion of justice through legal skill, bribery, or physical force by the strong—the state or its powerful citizens—against the weak. We present evidence that the less educated and poorer citizens in many countries feel their property rights are least secure. We then present a model of a farmer and a mine which can pollute his farm in a jurisdiction where the mine can subvert law enforcement. We show that, in this model, injunctions or other forms of property rules work better than compensation for damage or liability rules. The equivalences of the Coase Theorem break down in realistic ways. The case for injunctions is even stronger when parties can invest in power. Our approach sheds light on several controversies in law and economics, but also applies to practical problems in developing countries, such as low demand for formality, law enforcement under uncertain property rights, and unresolved conflicts between environmental damage and development.Link

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