Found 492 article(s) for author 'Inequality'

Urban Productivity in the Developing World

Urban Productivity in the Developing World. Edward Glaeser, March 2017, Paper, “Africa is urbanizing rapidly, and this creates both opportunities and challenges. Labor productivity appears to be much higher in developing-world cities than in rural areas, and historically urbanization is strongly correlated with economic growth. Education seems to be a strong complement to urbanization, and entrepreneurial human capital correlates strongly with urban success. Immigrants provide a natural source of entrepreneurship, both in the U.S. and in Africa, which suggests that making African cities more livable can generate economic benefits by attracting talent. Reducing the negative externalities of urban life requires a combination of infrastructure, incentives, and institutions. Appropriate institutions can mean independent public authorities, public-private partnerships, and non-profit entities depending on the setting.Link

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How Much Europe Can Europe Tolerate?

How Much Europe Can Europe Tolerate? Dani Rodrik, March 14, 2017, Opinion, “This month the European Union will celebrate the 60th anniversary of its founding treaty, the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community. There certainly is much to celebrate. After centuries of war, upheaval, and mass killings, Europe is peaceful and democratic. The EU has brought 11 former Soviet-bloc countries into its fold, successfully guiding their post-communist transitions. And, in an age of inequality, EU member countries exhibit the lowest income gaps anywhere in the world.Link

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Getting India’s women into the workforce: Time for a smart approach

Getting India’s women into the workforce: Time for a smart approach. Rohini Pande, March 10, 2017, Opinion “Between 1990 and 2015, India’s real GDP (gross domestic product) per capita grew from US$375 to US$1572, but its female labour force participation rate (LFPR) fell from 37% to 28%. This gives us a puzzle to solve: why isn’t India following the same trajectory as most other countries at a similar level of growth, where female LFP rises with GDP?Link

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The Role of Competition in Effective Outsourcing: Subsidized Food Distribution in Indonesia

The Role of Competition in Effective Outsourcing: Subsidized Food Distribution in Indonesia. Rema Hanna, March 2017, Paper, “Should government service delivery be outsourced to the private sector? If so, how? We conduct the first randomized field experiment on these issues, spread across 572 Indonesian localities. We show that allowing for outsourcing the last mile of a subsidized food delivery program reduced operating costs without sacrificing quality. However, prices paid by citizens were lower only where we exogenously increased competition in the bidding process. Corrupt elites attempted to block reform, but high rents in these areas also increased entry, offsetting this effect. The results suggest that sufficient competition is needed to ensure citizens share the gains from outsourcing.Link

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Understanding the long-run effects of Africa’s slave trades

Understanding the long-run effects of Africa’s slave trades. Nathan Nunn, February 27, 2017, Paper, “Evidence suggests that Africa’s slave trades played an important part in the shaping of the continent not only in terms of economic outcomes, but cultural and social outcomes as well. This column, taken from a recently published VoxEU eBook, summarises studies that reveal the lasting toxic effects of Africa’s four waves of slave trades on contemporary development.Link

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The State of the World with Rawi Abdelal

The State of the World with Rawi Abdelal. Rawi Abdelal, February 24, 2017, Audio, “At this moment of great geopolitical change, Davis Center Director Rawi Abdelal looks at the fate of globalization through the lenses of great power transitions, national borders, and economic inequality. Rawi Abdelal is the Herbert F. Johnson Professor of International Management at Harvard Business School and the Director of Harvard’s Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies. His work focuses on international political economy and the politics of globalization and political economy of Eurasia.Link

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Land Institutions and Chinese Political Economy – Institutional Complementarities and Macroeconomic Management

Land Institutions and Chinese Political Economy – Institutional Complementarities and Macroeconomic Management. Meg Elizabeth Rithmire, February 22, 2017, Paper, “This article critically examines the origins and evolution of China’s unique land institutions and situates land policy in the larger context of China’s reforms and pursuit of economic growth. It argues that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has strengthened the institutions that permit land expropriation—namely, urban/rural dualism, decentralized land ownership, and hierarchical land management—in order to use land as a key instrument of macroeconomic regulation, helping the CCP respond to domestic and international economic trends and manage expansion and contraction.Link

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Racial Inequality in Employment and Earnings after Incarceration

Racial Inequality in Employment and Earnings after Incarceration. Bruce Western, February 2017, Paper, “This paper analyzes monthly employment and earnings in the year after incarceration with survey data from a sample of individuals just released from prison. More than in earlier research, the data provide detailed measurement of temporary and informal employment and richly describe the labor market disadvantages of formerly-incarcerated men and women. We find that half the sample is jobless in any given month and average earnings are well below the poverty level. Jointly modeling employment and earnings, blacks and Hispanics are estimated to have lower total earnings than whites even after accounting for health, human capital, and criminal involvement.Link

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Is Global Equality the Enemy of National Equality?

Is Global Equality the Enemy of National Equality? Dani Rodrik, January 2017, Paper, “The bulk of global inequality is accounted for by income differences across countries rather than within countries. Expanding trade with China has aggravated inequality in some advanced economies, while ameliorating global inequality. But the “China shock” is receding and other low-income countries are unlikely to replicate China’s export-oriented industrialization experience. Relaxing restrictions on cross-border labor mobility might have an even stronger positive effect on global inequality. However it also raises a similar tension. While there would likely be adverse effects on low-skill workers in the advanced economies, international labor mobility has some advantages compared to further liberalizing international trade in goods. I argue that none of the contending perspectives — national-egalitarian, cosmopolitan, utilitarian — provides on its own an adequate frame for evaluating the consequences.Link

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Technology Beats Corruption

Technology Beats Corruption, Rema Hanna, January 20, 2017, Paper, “More than 1.9 billion individuals in the developing world benefit from social safety net programs: noncontributory transfer programs that distribute cash or basic in-kind products to the poor. But despite their importance, high levels of corruption often stifle the effectiveness of these programs. If cash transfer programs are particularly prone to graft, then in-kind programs should be preferred in practice. In a recent paper, Muralidharan et al. report evidence to the contrary by showing that use of a modern banking technology—biometric smart cards—can help to drastically reduce corruption in cash transfer programs.Link

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