Found 12 article(s) for author 'Income'

Directions for International Tax Reform:, Hearing Before the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance, Hearing on International Tax Reform

Directions for International Tax Reform:, Hearing Before the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance, Hearing on International Tax Reform. Stephen Shay, October 3, 2017, Paper, “Testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance Hearing on International Tax Reform, October 3, 2017. Objectives for Tax Reform. Tax reform should maintain or enhance our tax system’s current level of progressivity in distributing tax burdens and benefits. The most significant social welfare fact today is that the income of middle and lower income workers has stagnated in recent decades and a disproportionate share of income growth has accrued to those with highest incomes—the top 1%. While we have recovered from the recession and middle and lower income workers have made some gains, the disparity between high-income and middle- and lower-income has grown substantially and income mobility is more constrained than for prior generations. The taxation of cross-border income of U.S. MNCs should be analyzed under the same fairness standards that apply to any other income.Link

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The Social Implications of Sugar: Living Costs, Real Incomes and Inequality in Jamaica c1774

The Social Implications of Sugar: Living Costs, Real Incomes and Inequality in Jamaica c1774. Jeffery Williamson, October 2017, Paper, “This paper provides the first quantitative assessment of Jamaican standards of living and income inequality around 1774. To this purpose we compute welfare ratios for a range of occupations and build a social table. We find that the slave colony had extremely high living costs, which rose steeply during the American War of Independence, and low standards of living, particularly for its enslaved population. Our results also show that due to its extreme poverty surrounding extreme wealth Jamaica was the most unequal place in the pre-modern world. Furthermore, all of these characteristics applied to the free population alone.Link

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Expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit for Workers Without Dependent Children

Expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit for Workers Without Dependent Children. Lawrence Katz, September 2017, Paper, “In recent decades, wage inequality in the United States has increased and real wages for less-skilled workers have declined. As a result, many American workers are unable to adequately support their families through work, even working full time. The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has helped to counter this trend and has become one of the nation’s most effective antipoverty policies. But most of its benefits have gone to workers with children. The maximum credit available to workers without dependent children is just over $500, and workers lose eligibility entirely once their annual earnings reach $15,000.Link

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Wealth Inequality and Accumulation

Wealth Inequality and Accumulation. Alexandra Killewald, July 2017, Paper, “Research on wealth inequality and accumulation and the data upon which it relies have expanded substantially in the twenty-first century. Although the field has experienced rapid growth, conceptual and methodological challenges remain. We begin by discussing two major unresolved methodological concerns facing wealth research: how to address challenges to causal inference posed by wealth’s cumulative nature and how to operationalize net worth given its highly skewed distribution. Next, we provide an overview of data sources available for wealth research. To underscore the need for continued empirical attention to net worth, we review trends in wealth levels and inequality and evaluate wealth’s distinctiveness as an indicator of social stratification. We then review recent empirical evidence on the effects of wealth on other social outcomes, as well as research on the determinants of wealth. We close with a list of promising avenues for future research on wealth, its causes, and its consequences.Link

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Household Matters: Revisiting the Returns to Capital among Female Micro-entrepreneurs

Household Matters: Revisiting the Returns to Capital among Female Micro-entrepreneurs. Rohini Pande, April 17, 2017, Paper, “Several field experiments find positive returns to grants for male and not female microentrepreneurs. But, these analyses largely overlook that male and female micro-entrepreneurs often belong to the same household. Using data from randomized trials in India, Sri Lanka and Ghana, we show that the gender gap in microenterprise performance is not due to a gap in aptitude. Instead, low average returns of female-run enterprises are observed because women’s capital is invested into their husbands’ enterprises rather than their own. When women are the sole household enterprise operator, capital shocks lead to large increases in profits. Household-level income gains are equivalent regardless of the grant or loan recipient’s gender.” Link

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Two Cheers for the Foreign Tax Credit, Even in the BEPS Era

Two Cheers for the Foreign Tax Credit, Even in the BEPS Era. Stephen Shay, November November 2016, Paper, “Reform of the U.S. international income taxation system has been a hotly debated topic for many years. The principal competing alternatives are a territorial or exemption system and a worldwide system. For reasons summarized in this Article, we favor worldwide taxation if it is real worldwide taxation; that is, a non-deferred U.S. tax is imposed on all foreign income of U.S. residents at the time the income is earned. However, this approach is not acceptable unless the resulting double taxation is alleviated. The longstanding U.S. approach for handling the international double taxation problem is a foreign tax credit limited to the U.S. levy on the taxpayer’s foreign income.Link

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The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014

The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001-2014. Raj Chetty, April 10, 2016, Paper. “Importance: The relationship between income and life expectancy is well established but remains poorly understood.  Objectives” To measure the level, time trend, and geographic variability in the association between income and life expectancy and to identify factors related to small area variation.  Design and Setting: Income data for the US population were obtained from 1.4 billion deidentified tax records between 1999 and 2014. Mortality data were obtained from Social Security Administration death records. These data were used to estimate race- and ethnicity-adjusted life expectancy at 40 years of age by household income percentile, sex, and geographic area, and to evaluate factors associated with differences in life expectancy.Link

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Nominal GDP Targeting for Developing Countries

Nominal GDP Targeting for Developing Countries. Jeffrey Frankel, January 27, 2015. “Interest in nominal GDP (NGDP) targeting has come in the context of large advanced economies. Developing countries are better suited for it, however, in light of big supply shocks and terms of trade shocks, such as monsoon rains and oil import price shocks in the case of India. Under annual inflation targeting (IT), the full impact of adverse supply shocks is felt as lost real GDP. NGDP targeting automatically accommodates such shocks, while retaining the advantage of anchoring expectations. We derive the condition under which NGDP targeting…” Link

 

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The Not-So-Common-Wealth of Australia: Evidence for a Cross-Cultural Desire for a More Equal Distribution of Wealth.

The Not-So-Common-Wealth of Australia: Evidence for a Cross-Cultural Desire for a More Equal Distribution of Wealth. Michael I. Norton, December 2014, Paper. “Recent evidence suggests that Americans underestimate wealth inequality in the United States and favor a more equal wealth distribution (Norton & Ariely). Does this pattern reflect ideological dynamics unique to the United States, or is the phenomenon evident in other developed economies-such as Australia? We assessed Australians’ perceived and ideal wealth distributions and compared them to the actual wealth distribution. Although the United States and Australia differ…” Link

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How Much (More) Should CEOs Make? A Universal Desire for More Equal Pay

How Much (More) Should CEOs Make? A Universal Desire for More Equal Pay, Michael I. Norton, November 2014, Paper, Do people from different countries and different backgrounds have similar preferences for how much more the rich should earn than the poor? Using survey data from 40 countries (N = 55,238), we compare respondents’ estimates of the wages of people in different occupations – chief executive officers, cabinet ministers, and unskilled workers – to their ideals for what those wages should be. We show that ideal pay gaps between skilled and unskilled workers are significantly smaller than estimated pay gaps, and that there is consensus across countries, socioeconomic status, and political beliefs for ideal pay ratios. Moreover, data from 16 countries reveals that people dramatically underestimate actual pay inequality. In the United States – where underestimation was particularly pronounced – the actual pay ratio of CEOs to unskilled workers (354:1) far exceeded the estimated ratio (30:1) which in turn far exceeded the ideal ratio (7:1). In sum, respondents underestimate actual pay gaps, and their ideal pay gaps are even further from reality than those underestimates. Link

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