Found 20 article(s) for author 'Gender'

How Social Policy Contributes to the Distribution of Population Health: The Case of Gender Health Equity

How Social Policy Contributes to the Distribution of Population Health: The Case of Gender Health Equity. Jason Beckfield, July 4, 2017, Paper, “In this study we aimed to analyze gender health equity as a case of how social policy contributes to population health. We analyzed three sets of social-investment policies implemented in Europe and previously hypothesized to reduce gender inequity in labor market outcomes: childcare; active labor market programs; and long-term care. Methods: We use 12 indicators of social-investment policies from the OECD Social Expenditure Database, the OECD Family Database, and the Social Policy Indicators’ Parental Leave Benefit Dataset.Link

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The Ambition-Marriage Trade-Off Too Many Single Women Face

The Ambition-Marriage Trade-Off Too Many Single Women Face. Amanda Pallais, May 8, 2017, Paper, “Even today, research shows that men still prefer female partners who are less professionally ambitious than they are. Because of this, many single women face a trade-off: Actions that lead to professional success might be viewed less favorably in the heterosexual marriage market. This trade-off can be pervasive and is not limited to big decisions like volunteering for a leadership role or asking for a promotion. Daily activities such as speaking up in meetings, taking charge of a project, working late, or even certain outfits, haircuts, and makeup can be desirable in one market and not in the other.” Link

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The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-2000 Census

The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-2000 Census. Claudia Goldin, 2017, Paper, “The gender earnings gap is an expanding statistic over the lifecycle. We use the LEHD Census 2000 to understand the roles of industry, occupation, and establishment 14 years after leaving school. The gap for college graduates 26 to 39 years old expands by 34 log points, most occurring in the first 7 years. About 44 percent is due to disproportionate shifts by men into higher-earning positions, industries, and firms and about 56 percent to differential advances by gender within firms. Widening is greater for married individuals and for those in certain sectors. Non-college graduates experience less widening but with similar patterns.Link

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Household Matters: Revisiting the Returns to Capital among Female Micro-entrepreneurs

Household Matters: Revisiting the Returns to Capital among Female Micro-entrepreneurs. Rohini Pande, April 17, 2017, Paper, “Several field experiments find positive returns to grants for male and not female microentrepreneurs. But, these analyses largely overlook that male and female micro-entrepreneurs often belong to the same household. Using data from randomized trials in India, Sri Lanka and Ghana, we show that the gender gap in microenterprise performance is not due to a gap in aptitude. Instead, low average returns of female-run enterprises are observed because women’s capital is invested into their husbands’ enterprises rather than their own. When women are the sole household enterprise operator, capital shocks lead to large increases in profits. Household-level income gains are equivalent regardless of the grant or loan recipient’s gender.” Link

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‘Acting Wife’: Marriage Market Incentives and Labor Market Investments

‘Acting Wife’: Marriage Market Incentives and Labor Market Investments. Amanda Pallais, December 2016, Paper, “Do single women avoid career-enhancing actions because these actions could signal personality traits (like ambition) that are undesirable in the marriage market? We answer this question through two field experiments in an elite U.S. MBA program. Newly-admitted MBA students filled out a questionnaire on job preferences and personality traits to be used by the career center in internship placement; randomly selected students thought their answers would be shared with classmates. When they believed their classmates would not see their responses, single and non-single women answered similarly. However, single women reported desired salaries $18,000 lower and being willing to travel seven fewer days per month and work four fewer hours per week when they expected classmates would see their answers.Link

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Beliefs about Gender

Beliefs about Gender. Andrei Shleifer, December 2016, Paper, “We conduct a laboratory experiment on the determinants of beliefs about own and others’ ability across different domains. A preliminary look at the data points to two distinct forces: miscalibration in estimating performance depending on the difficulty of tasks and gender stereotypes. We develop a theoretical model that separates these forces and apply it to analyze a large laboratory dataset in which participants estimate their own and a partner’s performance on questions across six subjects: arts and literature, emotion recognition, business, verbal reasoning, mathematics, and sports.Link

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Does Women’s Banking Matter for Women? Evidence from urban India

Does Women’s Banking Matter for Women? Evidence from Urban India. Rohini Pande, November 16, 2016, Paper, “In many developing countries, women are prevented to take full advantage of the benefits of living in an urban area. In India, while one of every two men participates in the labor market, it is the case just for one of every six women. In this context, it is thought that access to microfinance is key to bridge the gap and to introduce women into the labor force. This is the first project to rigorously evaluate the long term impact of increasing access to microcredit on female labor force participation. In this study, we exploit quasi-experimental variation in women access to microfinance generated by a unique expansion strategy adopted by the oldest Women Bank in the world. From 1999 onward, the “ Shri Mahil Self Employment Women Association Sahkari (SEWA) Bank” massively introduced the use of loan collection officers which dramatically reduced the transaction cost of getting a loan in Ahmedabad, urban India.Link

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On Her Account: Can Strengthening Women’s Financial Control Boost Female Labor Supply?

On Her Account: Can Strengthening Women’s Financial Control Boost Female Labor Supply? Rohini Pande, November 15, 2016, Paper, “In collaboration with the state government of Madhya Pradesh, we experimentally varied whether women’s wages from India’s public workfare program were deposited into female-owned bank accounts instead of into the male household head’s account (the status quo). This treatment increased women’s work, both in the program and in the private sector, despite no change in market wages. Treatment effects are concentrated among two groups of women: those who had not previously worked for the program and those whose husbands disapprove of women working. These results are at odds with a model of household behavior in which labor force participation decisions only depend on wages and own-preference for leisure. Instead, we argue that they are consistent with a model in which gender norms internalized by men limit women’s labor market engagement.Link

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An Account of One’s Own: Can Targeting Benefits Payments Address Social Constraints to Female Labor Force Participation?

An Account of One’s Own: Can Targeting Benefits Payments Address Social Constraints to Female Labor Force Participation? Rohini Pande, October 2016, Paper, “Although emerging economies have enjoyed robust growth in recent years, in many cases female labor force participation has remained low, or even fallen. India, where women often face highly restrictive gender norms regarding work and mobility, is a particularly stark negative outlier. In collaboration with the state government of Madhya Pradesh, we experimentally varied whether women’s wages from India’s public workfare program were deposited into female-owned bank accounts versus an account owned by the male household head.Link

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Radical or Righteous? Using Gender to Shape Public Perceptions

Radical or Righteous? Using Gender to Shape Public Perceptions. Jocelyn Viterna, 2016, Book Chapter, “Yes,(I was) with the guerrillas, because they are the ones who defended us. Because without them, who knows, maybe we would have left fleeing and gone right where the enemy was. Put they went in front of us. Yes, the guerrillas. Our guerrillas. Part of us. After …Link

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